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Physiol Behav. 2018 Oct 1;194:401-409. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.06.034. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Acute effects of high-intensity interval, resistance or combined exercise protocols on testosterone - cortisol responses in inactive overweight individuals.

Author information

1
Centro de Estudios en Medición de la Actividad Física (CEMA), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, D.C, Colombia.
2
Centro de Estudios en Medición de la Actividad Física (CEMA), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, D.C, Colombia.; Grupo de Investigación Movimiento Corporal Humano, Facultad de Enfermería y Rehabilitación, Universidad de La Sabana, Chía, Colombia.. Electronic address: madominguezs@unal.edu.co.
3
Centro de Estudios en Medición de la Actividad Física (CEMA), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, D.C, Colombia.. Electronic address: jorge.correa@urosario.edu.co.
4
Grupo GICAEDS. Programa de Cultura Física, Deporte y Recreación, Universidad Santo Tomás, Bogotá, D.C, Colombia.. Electronic address: hectortriana@usantotomas.edu.co.
5
Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Santiago, Chile.. Electronic address: antonio.garcia.h@usach.cl.
6
Centro de Estudios en Medición de la Actividad Física (CEMA), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, D.C, Colombia.; Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarre, CIBER de Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CB16/10/00315), Tudela, Navarre, Spain.. Electronic address: mikel.izquierdo@gmail.com.
7
Exercise Research Laboratory, Physical Education School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
8
Endocrine Section-Applied Physiology Laboratory, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.. Electronic address: ach@email.unc.edu.
9
Centro de Estudios en Medición de la Actividad Física (CEMA), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, D.C, Colombia.. Electronic address: robinson.ramirez@urosario.edu.co.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the hormonal responses to one session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% maximum heart rate [HRmax], interspersed with 4 min of recovery at 75-85% HRmax), resistance training (RT at 50-70% of one repetition maximum 12-15 repetitions per set with 60s of recovery) or both (HIIT+RT) exercise protocol in a cohort of physical inactivity, overweight adults (age 18-30 years old). Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial among fifty-one men (23.6 ± 3.5 yr; 83.5 ± 7.8 kg; 28.0 ± 1.9 kg/m2), physical inactivity (i.e., <150 min of moderate-intensity exercise per week for >6 months), with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm) or body mass index ≥25 and ≤30 kg/m2 were randomized to the following 4 groups: high-intensity interval training (HIIT, n = 14), resistance training (RT, n = 12), combined high-intensity interval and resistance training (HIIT+RT, n = 13), or non-exercising control (CON, n = 12). Cortisol, total- and free-testosterone and total-testosterone/cortisol-ratio (T/C) assessments (all in serum) were determined before (pre) and 1-min post-exercise for each protocol session. Decreases in cortisol levels were -57.08 (95%CI, -75.58 to -38.58; P = 0.001; ɳ2 = 0.61) and - 37.65 (95%CI, -54.36 to -20.93; P = 0.001; ɳ2 = 0.51) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. Increases in T/C ratio were 0.022 (95%CI, 0.012 to 0.031; P = 0.001; ɳ2 = 0.49) and 0.015 (95%CI, 0.004 to 0.025; P = 0.007; ɳ2 = 0.29) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. In per-protocol analyses revealed a significant change in cortisol levels [interaction effect F(7.777), ɳ2 = 0.33] and T/C ratio [interaction effect F(5.298), ɳ2 = 0.25] between groups over time. Additionally, we showed that in both the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses, HIIT+RT did not change serum cortisol, total or free testosterone. The present data indicate a HIIT reduced cortisol and increased total-testosterone/cortisol-ratio levels significantly in physically inactive adults. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of these changes in hormonal responses in overweight men.

KEYWORDS:

Cortisol; Exercise; Overweight; Testosterone

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