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Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2018 May;147:139-144. doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2017.10.007. Epub 2017 Oct 21.

Developmental toxicity and inhibition of the fungicide hymexazol to melanin biosynthesis in zebrafish embryos.

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College of Environment and Plant Protection, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:
College of Environment and Plant Protection, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.
Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. Electronic address:


Hymexazol is an efficacious and widely used fungicide. However, its environmental toxicological assessment has not been well documented. It had no report of its toxicity to fish embryo. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are highly predictive of aquatic embryotoxicity outcome. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to hymexazol at varying concentrations for the study of the developmental toxicity, melanin biosynthesis, biochemical and transcriptional endpoints. The embryotoxicity tests indicated that the 96h LC50 value of hymexazol was 649mg/L with a 95% confidence interval range of 632-667mg/L. Hymexazol at concentrations of 417-738mg/L decreased the heart rate and increased the voluntary swing. Hymexazol inhibited normal development at concentrations above 554mg/L. the 96h EC50 was 411mg/L. Hymexazol in a concentration range of 417-738mg/L induced cardiac edema and yolk sac edema. Exposure of hymexazol at such concentrations to zebrafish embryos for 48h decreased the pigment area density compared with the no hymexazol control. Tyrosinase activity was inhibited by hymexazol relative to the untreated control. The P53 mRNA expression level in embryos upon exposure to 480mg/L or greater of hymexazol was significantly higher than that of the control. The results indicated that hymexazol has quite low acute toxicity and low embryotoxicity to zebrafish.


Aquatic toxicity; Fungicide; Hymexazol; Melanin; Tyrosinase; Zebrafish

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