Send to

Choose Destination
J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2018 Jun 6;9:44. doi: 10.1186/s40104-018-0259-8. eCollection 2018.

Endometrial response to conceptus-derived estrogen and interleukin-1β at the time of implantation in pigs.

Ka H1, Seo H1,2, Choi Y1,3, Yoo I1, Han J1.

Author information

1Department of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, 26493 Republic of Korea.
2Department of Veterinary Integrated Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2471 USA.
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0298 USA.


The establishment of pregnancy is a complex process that requires a well-coordinated interaction between the implanting conceptus and the maternal uterus. In pigs, the conceptus undergoes dramatic morphological and functional changes at the time of implantation and introduces various factors, including estrogens and cytokines, interleukin-1β2 (IL1B2), interferon-γ (IFNG), and IFN-δ (IFND), into the uterine lumen. In response to ovarian steroid hormones and conceptus-derived factors, the uterine endometrium becomes receptive to the implanting conceptus by changing its expression of cell adhesion molecules, secretory activity, and immune response. Conceptus-derived estrogens act as a signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy by changing the direction of prostaglandin (PG) F from the uterine vasculature to the uterine lumen. Estrogens also induce the expression of many endometrial genes, including genes related to growth factors, the synthesis and transport of PGs, and immunity. IL1B2, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is produced by the elongating conceptus. The direct effect of IL1B2 on endometrial function is not fully understood. IL1B activates the expression of endometrial genes, including the genes involved in IL1B signaling and PG synthesis and transport. In addition, estrogen or IL1B stimulates endometrial expression of IFN signaling molecules, suggesting that estrogen and IL1B act cooperatively in priming the endometrial function of conceptus-produced IFNG and IFND that, in turn, modulate endometrial immune response during early pregnancy. This review addresses information about maternal-conceptus interactions with respect to endometrial gene expression in response to conceptus-derived factors, focusing on the roles of estrogen and IL1B during early pregnancy in pigs.


Conceptus; Endometrium; Estrogen; Interleukin-1β, Pig; Uterus

Conflict of interest statement

This is a review paper; however, all results reported based on research by the authors was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Yonsei University.The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publication type

Publication type

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center