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Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2018 Oct;72(10):780-788. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12691. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Development and validation of the 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25).

Author information

1
VA Portland Health Care System, HSR&D Center to Improve Veteran Involvement in Care, Portland, USA.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, USA.
3
School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University and Portland State University, Portland, USA.
4
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
5
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.

Erratum in

Abstract

AIM:

Hikikomori, a form of severe social withdrawal, is an emerging issue in mental health, for which validated measurement tools are lacking. The object was to develop a self-report scale of hikikomori, and assess its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy.

METHODS:

A sample of 399 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis; diagnostic accuracy was compared against a semi-structured diagnostic interview.

RESULTS:

The Hikikomori Questionnaire contained 25 items across three subscales representing socialization, isolation, and emotional support. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity were all satisfactory. The area under the curve was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.92). A cut-off score of 42 (out of 100) was associated with a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 61%, and positive predictive value of 17%.

CONCLUSION:

The 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25) possesses robust psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy in an initial sample of Japanese adults. Additional research on its psychometric properties and ability to support clinical assessment of hikikomori is warranted.

KEYWORDS:

cultural syndrome; diagnosis; mental health; psychometric ; social isolation; social withdrawal

PMID:
29926525
PMCID:
PMC6221010
DOI:
10.1111/pcn.12691
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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