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Malar J. 2018 Jun 20;17(1):240. doi: 10.1186/s12936-018-2379-1.

A cross-sectional study of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection burden and risk factors in general population children in 12 villages in northern Uganda.

Author information

1
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9609 Medical Center Dr, Rm. 6E118 MSC 9706, Bethesda, MD, 20892-9704, USA.
2
EMBLEM Study, African Field Epidemiology Network, Kampala & St. Mary's Hospital, Lacor, Gulu, Uganda.
3
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo.
4
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
5
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9609 Medical Center Dr, Rm. 6E118 MSC 9706, Bethesda, MD, 20892-9704, USA. mbulaits@mail.nih.gov.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is an important cause of morbidity in northern Uganda. This study was undertaken to assess village-, household-, and individual-level risk factors of asymptomatic falciparum malaria in children in 12 villages in northern Uganda.

METHODS:

Between 10/2011 and 02/2014, 1006 apparently healthy children under 16 years old were enrolled in 12 villages using a stratified, multi-stage, cluster survey design and assessed for P. falciparum malaria infection using the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and thick film microscopy (TFM), and structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. Associations between weighted P. falciparum malaria prevalence (pfPR), based on RDT, and covariates were estimated as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (ORs, 95% CIs) using logistic models accounting for the survey design.

RESULTS:

Among 942 (93.5%) children successfully tested, pfPR was 52.4% by RDT and 32.7% by TFM. Overall pfPR was lower in villages where indoor residual insecticide spray (IRS) was, versus not, implemented (18.4% versus 75.2%, P < 0.0001). However, pfPR was heterogeneous both within IRS (10.6-34.8%) and non-IRS villages (63.6-86.2%). Elevated pfPR was associated with having a sibling who was RDT positive (OR 5.39, 95% CI 2.94-9.90, P = 0.0006) and reporting a fever at enrollment (aOR 4.80, 95% CI 1.94-11.9, P = 0.0094). Decreased pfPR was associated with living in an IRS village (adjusted OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.07, P < 0.0001), in a household with one (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.30-0.76) or more than one child below 5 years (aOR 0.23, 95% CI 0.12-0.44, Ptrend = 0.014), and reporting keeping a goat inside or near the house (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.29-0.62, P = 0.0021).

CONCLUSIONS:

The results show high but heterogeneous pfPR in villages in northern Uganda, confirm significantly decreased pfPR associated with IRS implementation, and suggest significant associations with some household characteristics. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors influencing malaria heterogeneity in villages in Uganda.

KEYWORDS:

Africa; Burkitt lymphoma; Epidemiology; Malaria; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Plasmodium falciparum; Uganda

PMID:
29925378
PMCID:
PMC6011516
DOI:
10.1186/s12936-018-2379-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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