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Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2018 Sep;18(9):464-468. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2018.2274. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

New Approach for Controlling Snail Host of Schistosoma mansoni, Biomphalaria alexandrina with Cyanobacterial Strains-Derived C-Phycocyanin.

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1 Parasitology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University , Zagazig, Egypt .
2 Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University , Zagazig, Egypt .
3 Pests and Plant Protection Department, National Research Centre , Giza, Egypt .
4 Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University , Zagazig, Egypt .


Schistosomiasis is one of the major communicable diseases of public health and socioeconomic importance in the developing world. It is a waterborne disease in which Biomphalaria alexandrina snails are known to be the intermediate molluscan host for Schistosoma mansoni: the causative agent of human intestinal schistosomiasis. Therefore, snail control is one of the cornerstones of schistosomiasis control programs. Several methods have been used to eliminate snail hosts. One of these methods is chemical molluscicides, which have undesirable effect to nontarget organisms. Consequently, the search for biologically derived molluscicides to complement the use of synthetic molluscicides is a top priority. In this concern, this study is the first to evaluate the molluscicidal potency of Cyanobacterial Phycocyanin (C-PC) as a virtually untapped source. Laboratory assessment of three freshwater Cyanobacterial strains: Anabaena oryzae SOS13, Nostoc muscorum SOS14, and Spirulina platensis SOS13-derived C-Phycocyanin as a biocontrol agent against freshwater mollusks; B. alexandrina snails were performed. Also, the safety of tested C-PC on nontarget organisms (Tilapia fish) was assessed. Results reveal that C-PC extracted from all tested Cyanobacteria strains showed a promising molluscicidal activity (the mortality rate was 100% at 100 μg/mL concentration). Out of the examined strains, A. oryzae SOS13 phycocyanin was found to be the most potent strain (LC50 and LC90 were 38.492 and 49.976 μg/mL, respectively). Moreover, C-PC extracts from all tested strains have been found to be safe to Tilapia fish as the survival rate was 100% at the effective molluscicidal concentrations. We can conclude that C-PC extracts are the first promising microbial biopesticides for the control of freshwater B. alexandrina snails.


Anabaena phycocyanin; Biomphalaria alexandrina; Nostoc; Spirulina; biological molluscicides

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