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J Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 14;218(6):911-921. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy249.

The Impact of the National HPV Vaccination Program in England Using the Bivalent HPV Vaccine: Surveillance of Type-Specific HPV in Young Females, 2010-2016.

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HIV and STI Department, Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, London, United Kingdom.
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
Virus Reference Department, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
Statistics, Modeling, and Economics Department, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.



The national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization program was introduced in England in September 2008 using the bivalent vaccine.


We collected residual vulva-vaginal swab specimens from 16 to 24-year-old women attending for chlamydia screening between 2010 and 2016 and tested for HPV DNA. We compared changes in type-specific (vaccine and nonvaccine) HPV prevalence over time and association with vaccination coverage. For women with known vaccination status, vaccine effectiveness was estimated.


HPV DNA testing was completed for 15459 specimens. Prevalence of HPV16/18 decreased between 2010/2011 and 2016 from 8.2% to 1.6% in 16-18 year olds and from 14.0% to 1.6% in 19-21 year olds. Declines were also seen for HPV31/33/45 (6.5% to 0.6% for 16-18 year olds and 8.6% to 2.6% for 19-21 year olds). Vaccine effectiveness for HPV16/18 was 82.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.6%-91.8%) and for HPV31/33/45 was 48.7% (95% CI, 20.8%-66.8%). Prevalence of HPV16/18 was compared to findings in 2007-2008 (prevaccination) and to predictions from Public Health England's mathematical model.


Eight years after the introduction of a national HPV vaccination program, substantial declines have occurred in HPV16/18 and HPV31/33/45. The prevalence of other high-risk HPV types has not changed.


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