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Radiology. 2018 Sep;288(3):717-727. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2018180318. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Acute Appendicitis: A Meta-Analysis of the Diagnostic Accuracy of US, CT, and MRI as Second-Line Imaging Tests after an Initial US.

Author information

1
From the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (K.A.E., A.A., C.L., Y.K.L.), Hospital Library and Archives (T.A.W.), Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (S.S.), and Department of Diagnostic Imaging (A.S.D.), The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8; and Departments of Family and Community Medicine (R.M.), Pediatrics (S.S.), and Medical Imaging (A.S.D.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Abstract

Purpose To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios of US, CT, and MRI as second-line imaging modalities after initial US for assessing acute appendicitis in children and adults. Materials and Methods A literature search was conducted in Medline and Embase to identify articles that used surgery or histopathologic examination alone or in combination with clinical follow-up or chart review to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of second-line imaging modalities. The quality of articles was assessed by using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 and the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy tools. Results For studies of children, the number of studies and patients were as follows: US, six studies and 548 patients; CT, nine studies and 1498 patients; MRI, five studies and 287 patients. For studies of adults, the number of studies and patients were as follows: US, three studies and 169 patients; CT, 11 studies and 1027 patients; MRI, six studies and 427 patients. Pooled sensitivities and specificities of second-line US for diagnosis of appendicitis in children were 91.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83.8%, 95.5%) and 95.2% (95% CI: 91.8%, 97.3%), respectively; and in adults, the pooled sensitivities and specificities were 83.1% (95% CI: 70.3%, 91.1%) and 90.9% (95% CI: 59.3%, 98.6%), respectively. Regarding second-line CT in children, the pooled sensitivities and specificities were 96.2% (95% CI: 93.2%, 97.8%) and 94.6% (95% CI: 92.8%, 95.9%); and in adults, the pooled sensitivities and specificities were 89.9% (95% CI: 85.4%, 93.2%) and 93.6% (95% CI: 91.2%, 95.3%), respectively. Regarding second-line MRI in children, pooled sensitivities and specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 85.8%, 100%) and 97.1% (95% CI: 92.1%, 99.0%); and in adults, the pooled sensitivities and specificities were 89.9% (95% CI: 84.8%, 93.5%) and 93.6% (95% CI: 90.9%, 95.5%), respectively. Conclusion Second-line US, CT, and MRI have comparable and high accuracy in helping to diagnose appendicitis in children and adults, including pregnant women. All three modalities may be valid as second-line imaging in a clinical imaging pathway for diagnosis and management of appendicitis.

PMID:
29916776
DOI:
10.1148/radiol.2018180318
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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