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Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Jul;24(7):1275-1284. doi: 10.3201/eid2407.170721.

Pneumococcal Meningitis in Adults after Introduction of PCV7 and PCV13, Israel, July 2009-June 20151.


The indirect effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on adult pneumococcal meningitis has not been thoroughly investigated. We present data from active surveillance on pneumococcal meningitis in adults in Israel occurring during July 2009-June 2015. Pneumococcal meningitis was diagnosed for 221 patients, 9.4% of all invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases. Although overall IPD incidence decreased during the study period, meningitis increased nonsignificantly from 0.66 to 0.85 cases/100,000 population. Incidence of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcal meningitis (VT13) decreased by 70%, but non-VT13 pneumococcal meningitis increased from 0.32 to 0.75 cases/100,000 population (incident rate ratio 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.35). Pneumococcal meningitis patients were younger and healthier than nonmeningitis IPD patients, and 20.2% had a history of previous head surgery or cerebrospinal fluid leak compared with <2.0% of nonmeningitis patients (p<0.0001). Non-VT13 types that rarely cause IPD (15B/C, 6C, 23A, 23B, 24F) seem to be emerging as common causes of meningitis.


Israel; PCV13; PCV7; S. pneumoniae; Streptococcus pneumoniae; adults; bacteria; indirect effects; invasive pneumococcal disease; meningitis; nationwide surveillance; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; pneumococcal meningitis; serotype replacement; streptococci; vaccine

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