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Chem Rev. 2018 Jul 11;118(13):6189-6235. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.8b00056. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Interface-Assisted Synthesis of 2D Materials: Trend and Challenges.

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Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry & Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden , Technische Universit├Ąt Dresden , 01062 Dresden , Germany.


The discovery of graphene one decade ago has triggered enormous interest in developing two-dimensional materials (2DMs)-that is 2D allotropes of various elements or compounds (consisting of two or more covalently bonded elements) or molecular frameworks with periodic structures. At present, various synthesis strategies have been exploited to produce 2DMs, such as top-down exfoliation and bottom-up chemical vapor deposition and solution synthesis methods. In this review article, we will highlight the interfacial roles toward the controlled synthesis of inorganic and organic 2DMs with varied structural features. We will summarize the state-of-the-art progress on interfacial synthesis strategies and address their advancements in the structural, morphological, and crystalline control by the direction of the arrangement of the molecules or precursors at a confined 2D space. First, we will provide an overview of the interfaces and introduce their advantages and uniqueness for the synthesis of 2DMs, followed by a brief classification of inorganic and organic 2DMs achieved by interfacial synthesis. Next, the currently developed interfacial synthesis strategies combined with representative inorganic and organic 2DMs are summarized, including the description of method details, the corresponding structural features, and the insights into the advantages and limitations of the synthesis methods, along with some recommendable characterization methods for understanding the interfacial assembly of the precursors and crystal growth of 2DMs. After that, we will discuss several classes of emerging organic 2DMs with particular emphasis on the structural control by the interfacial synthesis strategies. Note that, inorganic 2DMs will not be categorized separately due to the fact that a number of review articles have covered the synthesis, structure, processing, and applications. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are provided regarding the future development of interface-assisted synthesis of 2DMs with diverse structural and functional control.

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