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Trends Cell Biol. 2018 Dec;28(12):999-1013. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2018.05.005. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

The Role of Xist in X-Chromosome Dosage Compensation.

Author information

1
David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Biological Chemistry, Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
2
David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Biological Chemistry, Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address: kplath@mednet.ucla.edu.

Abstract

In each somatic cell of a female mammal one X chromosome is transcriptionally silenced via X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), initiating early in development. Although XCI events are conserved in mouse and human postimplantation development, regulation of X-chromosome dosage in preimplantation development occurs differently. In preimplantation development, mouse embryos undergo imprinted form of XCI, yet humans lack imprinted XCI and instead regulate gene expression of both X chromosomes by dampening transcription. The long non-coding RNA Xist/XIST is expressed in mouse and human preimplantation and postimplantation development to orchestrate XCI, but its role in dampening is unclear. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role of Xist in X chromosome dosage compensation in mouse and human.

KEYWORDS:

X inactivation; Xist; dosage compensation; embryonic stem cells; lncRNAs

PMID:
29910081
PMCID:
PMC6249047
DOI:
10.1016/j.tcb.2018.05.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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