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Front Neurosci. 2018 May 31;12:330. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00330. eCollection 2018.

Sleep Disorders Associated With Alzheimer's Disease: A Perspective.

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Department of Pulmonology and Lung Cancer, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
Department of Psychiatry, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Neurology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Tolima, Ibagué, Colombia.
Department of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Science, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management University, Visakhapatnam, India.
Institute for Pharmaceutical Science and Translational Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Russia.
Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.
Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
GALLY International Biomedical Research and Consulting LLC, San Antonio, TX, United States.
School of Health Science and Healthcare Administration, University of Atlanta, Johns Creek, GA, United States.


Sleep disturbances, as well as sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, are typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may precede the other clinical signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe clinical features of sleep disorders in AD and the relation between sleep disorders and both cognitive impairment and poor prognosis of the disease. There are difficulties of the diagnosis of sleep disorders based on sleep questionnaires, polysomnography or actigraphy in the AD patients. Typical disturbances of the neurophysiological sleep architecture in the course of the AD include deep sleep and paradoxical sleep deprivation. Among sleep disorders occurring in patients with AD, the most frequent disorders are sleep breathing disorders and restless legs syndrome. Sleep disorders may influence circadian fluctuations of the concentrations of amyloid-β in the interstitial brain fluid and in the cerebrovascular fluid related to the glymphatic brain system and production of the amyloid-β. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that disordered sleep contributes to cognitive decline and the development of AD pathology. In this mini-review, we highlight and discuss the association between sleep disorders and AD.


AD; diagnosis; disturbance; sleep disorders; sleep-rhythm

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