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Am Heart J. 2018 Jun;200:32-36. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2018.03.004. Epub 2018 Mar 10.

Time to therapeutic range (TtTR), anticoagulation control, and cardiovascular events in vitamin K antagonists-naive patients with atrial fibrillation.

Author information

1
I Clinica Medica, Atherothrombosis Center, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Institute for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
2
I Clinica Medica, Atherothrombosis Center, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
3
I Clinica Medica, Atherothrombosis Center, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy.
4
Institute for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Aalborg Thrombosis Research Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. Electronic address: g.y.h.lip@bham.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) reduce cardiovascular events (CVEs) in atrial fibrillation (AF) when a time in therapeutic range (TiTR) >70% is achieved. Factors affecting the time to achieve the TR (TtTR) are unknown.

METHODS:

Prospective observational study including 1,406 nonvalvular AF patients starting VKAs followed for a mean of 31.3months (3,690 patient/year); TiTR, TtTR, and SAMe-TT2R2 score were calculated, and CVEs were recorded.

RESULTS:

Median TtTR was 8.0days (interquartile range 5.0-18.0). Patients with high TtTR (ie, >75th percentile) were more likely to be in AF than in sinus rhythm at entry (odds ratio [OR]: 1.423, P=.011). Median TiTR was 60.0%; low TiTR (below median) was associated with SAMe-TT2R2 score (OR: 1.175, P=.001), high TtTR (>75th percentile, OR: 1.357, P=.017), and number of international normalized ratio checks (OR: 0.998, P=.049). We recorded 113 CVEs (3.1%/y), with a higher rate seen in patients with TtTR >75th percentile compared to those below (log-rank test, P=.006). A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that SAMe-TT2R2 score (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.331, P<.001), TtTR >75th percentile (HR: 1.505, P=.047), TiTR <70% (HR: 1.931, P=.004), number of international normalized ratio checks (HR: 0.988, P<.001), digoxin (HR: 1.855, P=.008), and proton-pump inhibitors (HR: 0.452, P<.001) were independently associated with CVEs.

CONCLUSIONS:

High TtTR is associated with poorer long-term quality of VKAs therapy. Patients with TtTR >18days or with high SAMe-TT2R2 score should be considered for treatment with non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants.

PMID:
29898846
DOI:
10.1016/j.ahj.2018.03.004

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