Send to

Choose Destination
Theranostics. 2018 Apr 30;8(11):3038-3058. doi: 10.7150/thno.23459. eCollection 2018.

Endogenous pH-responsive nanoparticles with programmable size changes for targeted tumor therapy and imaging applications.

Author information

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular Implants, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030, China.
College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.
The Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FF, UK.


Nanotechnology-based antitumor drug delivery systems, known as nanocarriers, have demonstrated their efficacy in recent years. Typically, the size of the nanocarriers is around 100 nm. It is imperative to achieve an optimum size of these nanocarriers which must be designed uniquely for each type of delivery process. For pH-responsive nanocarriers with programmable size, changes in pH (~6.5 for tumor tissue, ~5.5 for endosomes, and ~5.0 for lysosomes) may serve as an endogenous stimulus improving the safety and therapeutic efficacy of antitumor drugs. This review focuses on current advanced pH-responsive nanocarriers with programmable size changes for anticancer drug delivery. In particular, pH-responsive mechanisms for nanocarrier retention at tumor sites, size reduction for penetrating into tumor parenchyma, escaping from endo/lysosomes, and swelling or disassembly for drug release will be highlighted. Additional trends and challenges of employing these nanocarriers in future clinical applications are also addressed.


endogenous pH-responsive; nanocarriers; size change; targeted drug delivery; tumor therapy

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

Publication type

Publication type

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Ivyspring International Publisher Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center