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Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 12;8(1):8973. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27190-x.

A System of Cytokines Encapsulated in ExtraCellular Vesicles.

Author information

1
Section of Intercellular Interactions, Eunice Kennedy-Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA.
2
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, USA.
3
Evdokimov Moscow University of Medicine and Dentistry, Moscow, Russia.
4
Neonatology Branch, Eunice Kennedy-Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Detroit, USA. romeror@mail.nih.gov.
5
Section of Intercellular Interactions, Eunice Kennedy-Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA. margolis@helix.nih.gov.

Abstract

Cytokines are soluble factors that mediate cell-cell communications in multicellular organisms. Recently, another system of cell-cell communication was discovered, which is mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here, we demonstrate that these two systems are not strictly separated, as many cytokines in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo are released in EV-encapsulated forms and are capable of eliciting biological effects upon contact with sensitive cells. Association with EVs is not necessarily a property of a particular cytokine but rather of a biological system and can be changed upon system activation. EV-encapsulated cytokines were not detected by standard cytokine assays. Deciphering the regulatory mechanisms of EV-encapsulation will lead to a better understanding of cell-cell communications in health and disease.

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