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Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2019 May;138:11-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.06.004. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Design and evaluation of a CXCR4 targeting peptide 4DV3 as an HIV entry inhibitor and a ligand for targeted drug delivery.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address: inheon@rutgers.edu.
2
Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address: matthew.s.palombo@gsk.com.
3
Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address: xzhang@pharmacy.rutgers.edu.
4
Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address: zoltan@pharmacy.rutgers.edu.
5
Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address: sinko@rutgers.edu.

Abstract

The feasibility of utilizing the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR4 for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry inhibition and as an intracellular portal for targeted drug delivery was evaluated. Novel DV3 ligands (1DV3, 2DV3, and 4DV3) were designed, synthesized and conjugated to various probes (fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or biotin) and cargos with sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm (polyethylene glycol (PEG), streptavidin, and a polymeric nanoparticle). 4DV3 conjugated probes inhibited HIV-1 entry into the CXCR4-expressing reporter cell line TZM-bl (IC50 at 553 nM) whereas 1DV3 and 2DV3 did not. 4DV3 also inhibited binding of anti-CXCR4 antibody 44,708 to TZM-bl cells with nanomolar potency, while the small-molecule CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 did not. Molecular modeling suggested simultaneous binding of a single 4DV3 molecule to four CXCR4 molecules. Differences in CXCR4-binding sites could explain the discrete inhibitory effects observed for 4DV3, the 44,708 antibody and AMD3100. In the Sup-T1 cell chemotaxis assay, the 4DV3 ligand functioned as a CXCR4 allosteric enhancer. In addition, 4DV3 ligand-conjugated cargos with sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm were taken up into CXCR4-expressing Sup-T1 and TZM-bl cells, demonstrating that CXCR4 could serve as a drug delivery portal for nanocarriers. The uptake of 4DV3 functionalized nanocarriers combined with the allosteric interaction with CXCR4 suggests enhanced endocytosis occurs when 4DV3 is the targeting ligand. The current results indicate that 4DV3 might serve as a prototype for a new type of dual function ligand, one that acts as a HIV-1 entry inhibitor and a CXCR4 drug delivery targeting ligand.

KEYWORDS:

AMD3100; Allosteric enhancer; CXCR4; DV3; HIV-1 entry inhibitor; Nanocarrier; Targeted drug delivery

PMID:
29894816
PMCID:
PMC6286870
[Available on 2020-05-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.06.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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