Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Lancet. 2018 Jun 2;391(10136):2236-2271. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30994-2. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Measuring performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

Collaborators (868)

Fullman N, Yearwood J, Abay SM, Abbafati C, Abd-Allah F, Abdela J, Abdelalim A, Abebe Z, Abebo TA, Aboyans V, Abraha HN, Abreu DMX, Abu-Raddad LJ, Adane AA, Adedoyin RA, Adetokunboh O, Adhikari TB, Afarideh M, Afshin A, Agarwal G, Agius D, Agrawal A, Agrawal S, Ahmad Kiadaliri A, Aichour MTE, Akibu M, Akinyemi RO, Akinyemiju TF, Akseer N, Al Lami FH, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alam T, Alasfoor D, Albittar MI, Alene KA, Al-Eyadhy A, Ali SD, Alijanzadeh M, Aljunid SM, Alkerwi A, Alla F, Allebeck P, Allen C, Alomari MA, Al-Raddadi R, Alsharif U, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare AT, Amenu K, Ammar W, Amoako YA, Anber N, Andrei CL, Androudi S, Antonio CAT, Araújo VEM, Aremu O, Ärnlöv J, Artaman A, Aryal KK, Asayesh H, Asfaw ET, Asgedom SW, Asghar RJ, Ashebir MM, Asseffa NA, Atey TM, Atre SR, Atteraya MS, Avila-Burgos L, Avokpaho EFGA, Awasthi A, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayalew AA, Ayele HT, Ayer R, Ayuk TB, Azzopardi P, Azzopardi-Muscat N, Babalola TK, Badali H, Badawi A, Banach M, Banerjee A, Banstola A, Barber RM, Barboza MA, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen T, Barquera S, Barrero LH, Bassat Q, Basu S, Baune BT, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Bedi N, Beghi E, Behzadifar M, Behzadifar M, Bekele BB, Belachew AB, Belay SA, Belay YA, Bell ML, Bello AK, Bennett DA, Bennett JR, Bensenor IM, Berhe DF, Bernabé E, Bernstein RS, Beuran M, Bhalla A, Bhatt P, Bhaumik S, Bhutta ZA, Biadgo B, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Birungi C, Biryukov S, Bizuneh H, Bolliger IW, Bolt K, Bou-Orm IR, Bozorgmehr K, Brady OJ, Brazinova A, Breitborde NJK, Brenner H, Britton G, Brugha TS, Butt ZA, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Campos-Nonato IR, Campuzano JC, Car J, Car M, Cárdenas R, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castillo Rivas J, Catalá-López F, Cercy K, Chalek J, Chang HY, Chang JC, Chattopadhyay A, Chaturvedi P, Chiang PP, Chisumpa VH, Choi JJ, Christensen H, Christopher DJ, Chung SC, Ciobanu LG, Cirillo M, Colombara D, Conti S, Cooper C, Cornaby L, Cortesi PA, Cortinovis M, Costa Pereira A, Cousin E, Criqui MH, Cromwell EA, Crowe CS, Crump JA, Daba AK, Dachew BA, Dadi AF, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dargan PI, Daryani A, Daryani M, Das J, Das SK, das Neves J, Davis Weaver N, Davletov K, de Courten B, De Leo D, De Neve JW, Dellavalle RP, Demoz G, Deribe K, Des Jarlais DC, Dey S, Dharmaratne SD, Dhimal M, Djalalinia S, Doku DT, Dolan K, Dorsey ER, Dos Santos KPB, Doyle KE, Driscoll TR, Dubey M, Dubljanin E, Duncan BB, Echko M, Edessa D, Edvardsson D, Ehrlich JR, Eldrenkamp E, El-Khatib ZZ, Endres M, Endries AY, Eshrati B, Eskandarieh S, Esteghamati A, Fakhar M, Farag T, Faramarzi M, Faraon EJA, Faro A, Farzadfar F, Fatusi A, Fazeli MS, Feigin VL, Feigl AB, Fentahun N, Fereshtehnejad SM, Fernandes E, Fernandes JC, Fijabi DO, Filip I, Fischer F, Fitzmaurice C, Flaxman AD, Flor LS, Foigt N, Foreman KJ, Frostad JJ, Fürst T, Futran ND, Gakidou E, Gallus S, Gambashidze K, Gamkrelidze A, Ganji M, Gebre AK, Gebrehiwot TT, Gebremedhin AT, Gelaw YA, Geleijnse JM, Geremew D, Gething PW, Ghadimi R, Ghasemi Falavarjani K, Ghasemi-Kasman M, Gill PS, Giref AZ, Giroud M, Gishu MD, Giussani G, Godwin WW, Goli S, Gomez-Dantes H, Gona PN, Goodridge A, Gopalani SV, Goryakin Y, Goulart AC, Grada A, Griswold M, Grosso G, Gugnani HC, Guo Y, Gupta R, Gupta R, Gupta T, Gupta T, Gupta V, Haagsma JA, Hachinski V, Hafezi-Nejad N, Hailu GB, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Hankey GJ, Harb HL, Harewood HC, Harikrishnan S, Haro JM, Hassen HY, Havmoeller R, Hawley C, Hay SI, He J, Hearps SJC, Hegazy MI, Heibati B, Heidari M, Hendrie D, Henry NJ, Herrera Ballesteros VH, Herteliu C, Hibstu DT, Hiluf MK, Hoek HW, Homaie Rad E, Horita N, Hosgood HD, Hosseini M, Hosseini SR, Hostiuc M, Hostiuc S, Hoy DG, Hsairi M, Htet AS, Hu G, Huang JJ, Iburg KM, Idris F, Igumbor EU, Ikeda C, Ileanu BV, Ilesanmi OS, Innos K, Irvani SSN, Irvine CMS, Islami F, Jacobs TA, Jacobsen KH, Jahanmehr N, Jain R, Jain SK, Jakovljevic MB, Jalu MT, Jamal AA, Javanbakht M, Jayatilleke AU, Jeemon P, Jha RP, Jha V, Jóúwiak J, John O, Johnson SC, Jonas JB, Joshua V, Jürisson M, Kabir Z, Kadel R, Kahsay A, Kalani R, Kar C, Karanikolos M, Karch A, Karema CK, Karimi SM, Kasaeian A, Kassa DH, Kassa GM, Kassa TD, Kassebaum NJ, Katikireddi SV, Kaul A, Kawakami N, Kazanjan K, Kebede S, Keiyoro PN, Kemp GR, Kengne AP, Kereselidze M, Ketema EB, Khader YS, Khafaie MA, Khajavi A, Khalil IA, Khan EA, Khan G, Khan MN, Khan MA, Khanal MN, Khang YH, Khater MM, Khoja ATA, Khosravi A, Khubchandani J, Kibret GD, Kiirithio DN, Kim D, Kim YJ, Kimokoti RW, Kinfu Y, Kinra S, Kisa A, Kissoon N, Kochhar S, Kokubo Y, Kopec JA, Kosen S, Koul PA, Koyanagi A, Kravchenko M, Krishan K, Krohn KJ, Kuate Defo B, Kumar GA, Kumar P, Kutz M, Kuzin I, Kyu HH, Lad DP, Lafranconi A, Lal DK, Lalloo R, Lam H, Lan Q, Lang JJ, Lansingh VC, Lansky S, Larsson A, Latifi A, Lazarus JV, Leasher JL, Lee PH, Legesse Y, Leigh J, Leshargie CT, Leta S, Leung J, Leung R, Levi M, Li Y, Liang J, Liben ML, Lim LL, Lim SS, Lind M, Linn S, Listl S, Liu P, Liu S, Lodha R, Lopez AD, Lorch SA, Lorkowski S, Lotufo PA, Lucas TCD, Lunevicius R, Lurton G, Lyons RA, Maalouf F, Macarayan ERK, Mackay MT, Maddison ER, Madotto F, Magdy Abd El Razek H, Magdy Abd El Razek M, Majdan M, Majdzadeh R, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Malhotra R, Malta DC, Mamun AA, Manhertz T, Manguerra H, Mansournia MA, Mantovani LG, Manyazewal T, Mapoma CC, Margono C, Martinez-Raga J, Martins SCO, Martins-Melo FR, Martopullo I, März W, Massenburg BB, Mathur MR, Maulik PK, Mazidi M, McAlinden C, McGrath JJ, McKee M, Mehata S, Mehrotra R, Mehta KM, Mehta V, Meier T, Mejia-Rodriguez F, Meles KG, Melku M, Memiah P, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Mengiste DA, Mengistu DT, Menota BG, Mensah GA, Meretoja A, Meretoja TJ, Mezgebe HB, Miazgowski T, Micha R, Milam R, Millear A, Miller TR, Mini GK, Minnig S, Mirica A, Mirrakhimov EM, Misganaw A, Mitchell PB, Mlashu FW, Moazen B, Mohammad KA, Mohammadibakhsh R, Mohammed E, Mohammed MA, Mohammed S, Mokdad AH, Mola GL, Molokhia M, Momeniha F, Monasta L, Montañez Hernandez JC, Moosazadeh M, Moradi-Lakeh M, Moraga P, Morawska L, Moreno Velasquez I, Mori R, Morrison SD, Moses M, Mousavi SM, Mueller UO, Murhekar M, Murthy GVS, Murthy S, Musa J, Musa KI, Mustafa G, Muthupandian S, Nagata C, Nagel G, Naghavi M, Naheed A, Naik GA, Naik N, Najafi F, Naldi L, Nangia V, Nansseu JRN, Narayan KV, Nascimento BR, Negoi I, Negoi RI, Newton CR, Ngunjiri JW, Nguyen G, Nguyen L, Nguyen TH, Nichols E, Ningrum DNA, Nolte E, Nong VM, Norheim OF, Norrving B, Noubiap JJN, Nyandwi A, Obermeyer CM, Ofori-Asenso R, Ogbo FA, Oh IH, Oladimeji O, Olagunju AT, Olagunju TO, Olivares PR, Oliveira PPV, Olsen HE, Olusanya BO, Olusanya JO, Ong K, Opio JN, Oren E, Ortega-Altamirano DV, Ortiz A, Ozdemir R, Pa M, Pain AW, Palone MRT, Pana A, Panda-Jonas S, Pandian JD, Park EK, Parsian H, Patel T, Pati S, Patil ST, Patle A, Patton GC, Paturi VR, Paudel D, Pedroso MM, Pedroza SP, Pereira DM, Perico N, Peterson H, Petzold M, Peykari N, Phillips MR, Piel FB, Pigott DM, Pillay JD, Piradov MA, Polinder S, Pond CD, Postma MJ, Pourmalek F, Prakash S, Prakash V, Prasad N, Prasad NM, Purcell C, Qorbani M, Quintana HK, Radfar A, Rafay A, Rafiei A, Rahimi K, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rahman M, Rahman MA, Rahman SU, Rai RK, Raju SB, Ram U, Rana SM, Rankin Z, Rasella D, Rawaf DL, Rawaf S, Ray SE, Razo-García CA, Reddy P, Reiner RC, Reis C, Reitsma MB, Remuzzi G, Renzaho AMN, Resnikoff S, Rezaei S, Rezai MS, Ribeiro AL, Rios Blancas MJ, Rivera JA, Roever L, Ronfani L, Roshandel G, Rostami A, Roth GA, Rothenbacher D, Roy A, Roy N, Ruhago GM, Sabde YD, Sachdev PS, Sadat N, Safdarian M, Safiri S, Sagar R, Sahebkar A, Sahraian MA, Sajadi HS, Salama J, Salamati P, Saldanha RF, Salimzadeh H, Salomon JA, Samy AM, Sanabria JR, Sancheti PK, Sanchez-Niño MD, Santomauro D, Santos IS, Santric Milicevic MM, Sarker AR, Sarrafzadegan N, Sartorius B, Satpathy M, Savic M, Sawhney M, Saxena S, Saylan MI, Schaeffner E, Schmidhuber J, Schmidt MI, Schneider IJC, Schumacher AE, Schutte AE, Schwebel DC, Schwendicke F, Sekerija M, Sepanlou SG, Servan-Mori EE, Shafieesabet A, Shaikh MA, Shakh-Nazarova M, Shams-Beyranvand M, Sharafi H, Sharif-Alhoseini M, Shariful Islam SM, Sharma M, Sharma R, She J, Sheikh A, Shfare MT, Shi P, Shields C, Shigematsu M, Shinohara Y, Shiri R, Shirkoohi R, Shiue I, Shrime MG, Shukla SR, Siabani S, Sigfusdottir ID, Silberberg DH, Silva DAS, Silva JP, Silveira DGA, Singh JA, Singh L, Singh NP, Singh V, Sinha DN, Sinke AH, Sisay M, Skirbekk V, Sliwa K, Smith A, Soares Filho AM, Sobaih BHA, Somai M, Soneji S, Soofi M, Sorensen RJD, Soriano JB, Soyiri IN, Sposato LA, Sreeramareddy CT, Srinivasan V, Stanaway JD, Stathopoulou V, Steel N, Stein DJ, Stokes MA, Sturua L, Sufiyan MB, Suliankatchi RA, Sunguya BF, Sur PJ, Sykes BL, Sylaja PN, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Tadakamadla SK, Tadesse AH, Taffere GR, Tandon N, Tariku AT, Taveira N, Tehrani-Banihashemi A, Temam Shifa G, Temsah MH, Terkawi AS, Tesema AG, Tesfaye DJ, Tessema B, Thakur JS, Thomas N, Thompson MJ, Tillmann T, To QG, Tobe-Gai R, Tonelli M, Topor-Madry R, Topouzis F, Torre A, Tortajada M, Tran BX, Tran KB, Tripathi A, Tripathy SP, Troeger C, Truelsen T, Tsoi D, Tudor Car L, Tuem KB, Tyrovolas S, Uchendu US, Ukwaja KN, Ullah I, Updike R, Uthman OA, Uzochukwu BSC, Valdez PR, van Boven JFM, Varughese S, Vasankari T, Violante FS, Vladimirov SK, Vlassov VV, Vollset SE, Vos T, Wagnew F, Waheed Y, Wallin MT, Walson JL, Wang Y, Wang YP, Wassie MM, Weaver MR, Weiderpass E, Weintraub RG, Weiss J, Weldegwergs KG, Werdecker A, West TE, Westerman R, White RG, Whiteford HA, Widecka J, Winkler AS, Wiysonge CS, Wolfe CD, Wondimkun YA, Workicho A, Wyper GMA, Xavier D, Xu G, Yan LL, Yano Y, Yaseri M, Yimer NB, Yin P, Yip P, Yirsaw BD, Yonemoto N, Yonga G, Yoon SJ, Yotebieng M, Younis MZ, Yu C, Zadnik V, Zaidi Z, Zaki MES, Zaman SB, Zamani M, Zenebe ZM, Zhou M, Zhu J, Zimsen SRM, Zipkin B, Zodpey S, Zuhlke LJ, Murray CJL, Lozano R.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016.

METHODS:

Drawing from established methods and updated estimates from GBD 2016, we used 32 causes from which death should not occur in the presence of effective care to approximate personal health-care access and quality by location and over time. To better isolate potential effects of personal health-care access and quality from underlying risk factor patterns, we risk-standardised cause-specific deaths due to non-cancers by location-year, replacing the local joint exposure of environmental and behavioural risks with the global level of exposure. Supported by the expansion of cancer registry data in GBD 2016, we used mortality-to-incidence ratios for cancers instead of risk-standardised death rates to provide a stronger signal of the effects of personal health care and access on cancer survival. We transformed each cause to a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the first percentile (worst) observed between 1990 and 2016, and 100 as the 99th percentile (best); we set these thresholds at the country level, and then applied them to subnational locations. We applied a principal components analysis to construct the HAQ Index using all scaled cause values, providing an overall score of 0-100 of personal health-care access and quality by location over time. We then compared HAQ Index levels and trends by quintiles on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary measure of overall development. As derived from the broader GBD study and other data sources, we examined relationships between national HAQ Index scores and potential correlates of performance, such as total health spending per capita.

FINDINGS:

In 2016, HAQ Index performance spanned from a high of 97·1 (95% UI 95·8-98·1) in Iceland, followed by 96·6 (94·9-97·9) in Norway and 96·1 (94·5-97·3) in the Netherlands, to values as low as 18·6 (13·1-24·4) in the Central African Republic, 19·0 (14·3-23·7) in Somalia, and 23·4 (20·2-26·8) in Guinea-Bissau. The pace of progress achieved between 1990 and 2016 varied, with markedly faster improvements occurring between 2000 and 2016 for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia, whereas several countries in Latin America and elsewhere saw progress stagnate after experiencing considerable advances in the HAQ Index between 1990 and 2000. Striking subnational disparities emerged in personal health-care access and quality, with China and India having particularly large gaps between locations with the highest and lowest scores in 2016. In China, performance ranged from 91·5 (89·1-93·6) in Beijing to 48·0 (43·4-53·2) in Tibet (a 43·5-point difference), while India saw a 30·8-point disparity, from 64·8 (59·6-68·8) in Goa to 34·0 (30·3-38·1) in Assam. Japan recorded the smallest range in subnational HAQ performance in 2016 (a 4·8-point difference), whereas differences between subnational locations with the highest and lowest HAQ Index values were more than two times as high for the USA and three times as high for England. State-level gaps in the HAQ Index in Mexico somewhat narrowed from 1990 to 2016 (from a 20·9-point to 17·0-point difference), whereas in Brazil, disparities slightly increased across states during this time (a 17·2-point to 20·4-point difference). Performance on the HAQ Index showed strong linkages to overall development, with high and high-middle SDI countries generally having higher scores and faster gains for non-communicable diseases. Nonetheless, countries across the development spectrum saw substantial gains in some key health service areas from 2000 to 2016, most notably vaccine-preventable diseases. Overall, national performance on the HAQ Index was positively associated with higher levels of total health spending per capita, as well as health systems inputs, but these relationships were quite heterogeneous, particularly among low-to-middle SDI countries.

INTERPRETATION:

GBD 2016 provides a more detailed understanding of past success and current challenges in improving personal health-care access and quality worldwide. Despite substantial gains since 2000, many low-SDI and middle-SDI countries face considerable challenges unless heightened policy action and investments focus on advancing access to and quality of health care across key health services, especially non-communicable diseases. Stagnating or minimal improvements experienced by several low-middle to high-middle SDI countries could reflect the complexities of re-orienting both primary and secondary health-care services beyond the more limited foci of the Millennium Development Goals. Alongside initiatives to strengthen public health programmes, the pursuit of universal health coverage hinges upon improving both access and quality worldwide, and thus requires adopting a more comprehensive view-and subsequent provision-of quality health care for all populations.

FUNDING:

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

PMID:
29893224
PMCID:
PMC5986687
DOI:
10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30994-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center