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Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Jun 11. doi: 10.1038/s41380-018-0070-0. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Author information

1
Departments of Psychiatry and of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, 13210, USA. sfaraone@childpsychresearch.org.
2
School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
3
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

Decades of research show that genes play an vital role in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its comorbidity with other disorders. Family, twin, and adoption studies show that ADHD runs in families. ADHD's high heritability of 74% motivated the search for ADHD susceptibility genes. Genetic linkage studies show that the effects of DNA risk variants on ADHD must, individually, be very small. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated several genetic loci at the genome-wide level of statistical significance. These studies also show that about a third of ADHD's heritability is due to a polygenic component comprising many common variants each having small effects. From studies of copy number variants we have also learned that the rare insertions or deletions account for part of ADHD's heritability. These findings have implicated new biological pathways that may eventually have implications for treatment development.

PMID:
29892054
DOI:
10.1038/s41380-018-0070-0

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