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Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jun 11;19(6). pii: E1730. doi: 10.3390/ijms19061730.

Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Cheeses Influence the Levels of Circulating n-3 Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans.

Author information

1
Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy. m.elisabetta.murru@gmail.com.
2
Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy. giacarta28@gmail.com.
3
Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy. lina.cordeddu@ki.se.
4
Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy. mpmelis@unica.it.
5
Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy. erides82@yahoo.it.
6
Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy. hastiansar@gmail.com.
7
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, VetAgro Sup, UMR Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France. yves.chilliard@inra.fr.
8
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, VetAgro Sup, UMR Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France. anne.ferlay@inra.fr.
9
APC Microbiome Ireland, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, P61 C996 Co. Cork, Ireland. catherine.stanton@teagasc.ie.
10
APC Microbiome Ireland, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, P61 C996 Co. Cork, Ireland. mairead.coakley@teagasc.ie.
11
APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, T12 YT20 Cork, Ireland. p.ross@ucc.ie.
12
Servizio per la Ricerca nei Prodotti di Origine Animale, AGRIS Sardegna, Loc. Bonassai, 07100 Sassari, Italy. gpiredda@tiscalinet.it.
13
Servizio per la Ricerca nei Prodotti di Origine Animale, AGRIS Sardegna, Loc. Bonassai, 07100 Sassari, Italy. maddis@agrisricerca.it.
14
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Roma, Italy. mariacristina.mele@unicatt.it.
15
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Roma, Italy. g.cannelli@libero.it.
16
Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy. banni@unica.it.
17
Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy. claumanca@hotmail.com.

Abstract

n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) directly and indirectly regulate lipid metabolism, energy balance and the inflammatory response. We investigated changes to the n-3 HUFA score of healthy adults, induced by different types and amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched (ENCH) cheeses consumed for different periods of time, compared to dietary fish oil (FO) pills (500 mg, each containing 100 mg of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids—EPA+DHA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA)-rich linseed oil (4 g, containing 2 g of ALA). A significant increase in the n-3 HUFA score was observed, in a dose-dependent manner, after administration of the FO supplement. In terms of the impact on the n-3 HUFA score, the intake of ENCH cheese (90 g/day) for two or four weeks was equivalent to the administration of one or two FO pills, respectively. Conversely, the linseed oil intake did not significantly impact the n-3 HUFA score. Feeding ENCH cheeses from different sources (bovine, ovine and caprine) for two months improved the n-3 HUFA score by increasing plasma DHA, and the effect was proportional to the CLA content in the cheese. We suggest that the improved n-3 HUFA score resulting from ENCH cheese intake may be attributed to increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) activity. This study demonstrates that natural ENCH cheese is an alternative nutritional source of n-3 HUFA in humans.

KEYWORDS:

cheese; clinical trial; conjugated linoleic acids (CLA); fatty acids (FA); highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA); plasma; ruminant

PMID:
29891784
PMCID:
PMC6032244
DOI:
10.3390/ijms19061730
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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