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Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2018 May 25;31(5):458-464. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-0034.2018.05.012.

[Eestablishment of the model of goat lumbar spinal fusion by 3D printing technology and experimental perioperative management].

[Article in Chinese]

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Department of Orthopaedics, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, Shannxi, China;



To explore the feasibility and the attention of perioperative management of goat lumbar fusion model for individualized 3D printing technology.


According to preoperative X-ray and CT three dimensional reconstruction data of 10 males Boer goat's lumbar(1-2 years old, weight 35-45 kg), the preoperative open height were determined, meanwhile, according to the theoretical entry point of nails, the length of steel plate, arc, and setting position, screw length for reference were determined, the lumbar lateral anterior plate was designed and 3D-printed. Goats lied on the right side, under the general anesthesia, the lumbar vertebrae of the goats and the adjacent intervertebral disc were resected, and the titanium cage after the bone graft was implanted into the goat, the 3D-print lateral bone plate was fixed. After operation, feeding, fluid infusion, anti infection, postoperative complications management, respiratory digestion perioperative management were performed.


The 10 models for goats were successful in results. Postoperative X-ray film and three-dimensional reconstruction of CT showed that titanium cage and bone plate were in good position and reliable. Three months after the operation, CT 3D reconstruction and micro-CT of the goat were observed, and the fusion of the spine was observed. Imaging studies showed that the fusion of the lateral bone plate fixation titanium cage was both at the end of the titanium cage and the dense bone trabecular formation between the vertebral bodies.


The 3D printing technology sets up the goat lumbar spinal fusion model successfully, which is a kind of effective, more successful, reliable and stable method, perioperative management. The method is scientific, practical, and more humanized, to ensure that lumbar lateral successfully implanted the nail plate of lateralanterior internal fixation system, with reduction of occurrence of surgical complications.


Goats ; Lumbar vertebrae ; Perioperative care ; Printing, three-dimensional ; Spinal fusion

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Conflict of interest statement

The authors of this article and the planning committee members and staff have no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.

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