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Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2018 Sep;1859(9):893-900. doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2018.06.004. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

The pathomechanism of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency includes nuclear DNA damage.

Author information

1
Monique and Jacques Roboh Department of Genetic Research, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Department of Genetic and Metabolic Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
2
Monique and Jacques Roboh Department of Genetic Research, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Department of Genetic and Metabolic Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address: annsr@hadassah.org.il.

Abstract

Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX, respiratory chain complex IV), contributes to ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Clinical presentation of COX deficiency is heterogeneous ranging from mild to severe neuromuscular diseases. Anemia is among the symptoms and we have previously reported Fanconi anemia like features in COX4-1 deficiency, suggesting genomic instability and our preliminary results detected nuclear double stranded DNA breaks (DSB). We now quantified the DSB by phospho histone H2AX Ser139 staining of COX4-1 and COX6B1 deficient fibroblasts (225% and 215% of normal, respectively) and confirmed their occurrence by neutral comet assay. We further explored the mechanism of DNA damage by studying normal fibroblasts treated with micromolar concentrations of cyanide (KCN). Present results demonstrate elevated nuclear DSB in cells treated with 50 μM KCN for 24 h (170% of normal) in high-glucose medium conditions where ROS and ATP remain normal, although Glutathione content was partially decreased. In glucose-free and serum-free medium, where growth is hampered, DSB were not elevated. Additionally we demonstrate the benefit of nicotinamide riboside (NR) which ameliorated DSB in COX4-1, COX6B1 and KCN treated cells (130%, 154% and 87% of normal cells, respectively). Conversely a negative effect of a poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) inhibitor was found. Although additional investigation is needed, our findings raise the possibility that the pathomechanism of COX deficiency and possibly also in other OXPHOS defects, include nuclear DNA damage resulting from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) deficit combined with a replicative state, rather than oxidative stress and energy depletion.

KEYWORDS:

Cytochrome c oxidase; DNA double stranded breaks; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial disease; OXPHOS; Respiratory chain

PMID:
29886046
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbabio.2018.06.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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