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J Neuroinflammation. 2018 Jun 9;15(1):178. doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1211-8.

Aggf1 attenuates neuroinflammation and BBB disruption via PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010, China.
2
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92354, USA.
3
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92354, USA.
4
Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010, China. zyxieneuro2013@yahoo.com.
5
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92354, USA. johnzhang3910@yahoo.com.
6
Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92354, USA. johnzhang3910@yahoo.com.
7
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92354, USA. johnzhang3910@yahoo.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption are two critical mechanisms of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced brain injury, which are closely related to patient prognosis. Recently, angiogenic factor with G-patch and FHA domain 1 (Aggf1) was shown to inhibit inflammatory effect and preserve vascular integrity in non-nervous system diseases. This study aimed to determine whether Aggf1 could attenuate neuroinflammation and preserve BBB integrity after experimental SAH, as well as the underlying mechanisms of its protective roles.

METHODS:

Two hundred forty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the endovascular perforation model of SAH. Recombinant human Aggf1 (rh-Aggf1) was administered intravenously via tail vein injection at 1 h after SAH induction. To investigate the underlying neuroprotection mechanism, Aggf1 small interfering RNA (Aggf1 siRNA) and PI3K-specific inhibitor LY294002 were administered through intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) before SAH induction. SAH grade, neurological score, brain water content, BBB permeability, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were performed.

RESULTS:

Expression of endogenous Aggf1 was markedly increased after SAH. Aggf1 was primarily expressed in endothelial cells and astrocytes, as well as microglia after SAH. Administration of rh-Aggf1 significantly reduced brain water content and BBB permeability, decreased the numbers of infiltrating neutrophils, and activated microglia in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex following SAH. Furthermore, rh-Aggf1 treatment improved both short- and long-term neurological functions after SAH. Meanwhile, exogenous rh-Aggf1 significantly increased the expression of PI3K, p-Akt, VE-cadherin, Occludin, and Claudin-5, as well as decreased the expression of p-NF-κB p65, albumin, myeloperoxidase (MPO), TNF-α, and IL-1β. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous Aggf1 aggravated BBB breakdown, inflammatory response and neurological impairments at 24 h after SAH. Additionally, the protective roles of rh-Aggf1 were abolished by LY294002.

CONCLUSIONS:

Taken together, exogenous Aggf1 treatment attenuated neuroinflammation and BBB disruption, improved neurological deficits after SAH in rats, at least in part through the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway.

KEYWORDS:

Angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1; Blood-brain barrier; Neuroinflammation; Subarachnoid hemorrhage

PMID:
29885663
PMCID:
PMC5994242
DOI:
10.1186/s12974-018-1211-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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