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Nat Commun. 2018 Jun 8;9(1):2253. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04787-4.

Gene flow contributes to diversification of the major fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

Author information

1
Department of Mycology, Fungal Biology and Pathogenicity Unit, Institut Pasteur, INRA, 75015, Paris, France.
2
Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, CNRS, Univ. Paris Sud, AgroParisTech, Université Paris Saclay, 91405, Orsay cedex, France.
3
Center for Bioinformatics, BioStatistics and Integrative Biology (C3BI), USR 3756 IP CNRS, Institut Pasteur, 75015, Paris, France.
4
Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), The Barcelona Institute for Science and Technology, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.
5
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08002, Barcelona, Spain.
6
Department of Genomes and Genetics, Human Evolutionary Genetics Unit, UMR 2000 CNRS, Institut Pasteur, 75015, Paris, France.
7
Biomics Pole, CITECH, Institut Pasteur, 75015, Paris, France.
8
Department of Genetics, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, CA, 94305-5120, USA.
9
School of Biosciences and Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
10
CEA, Genoscope, Institut de biologie François Jacob, 91000, Evry, France.
11
CNRS UMR 8030, 91000, Evry, France.
12
Univ. Evry, Univ. Paris-Saclay, 91000, Evry, France.
13
UK National Mycology Reference Laboratory, Public Health England, Bristol, BS2 8EL, UK.
14
Department of Medical Mycology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Dehli, 110007, India.
15
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, PR Guangdong Sheng, 518036, China.
16
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 61469, South Korea.
17
EA1155 - IICiMed, Institut de Recherche en Santé 2, Université de Nantes, 44200, Nantes, France.
18
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166, Messina, ME, Italy.
19
IRCCS - Centro Neurolesi Bonino-Pulejo, 98124, Messina, Italy.
20
ICREA, 08010, Barcelona, Spain.
21
Unité de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Service de Microbiologie clinique, Hôpital Necker-Enfants-Malades, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), 75015, Paris, France.
22
Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris-Cité, 75006, Paris, France.
23
Department of Mycology, Fungal Biology and Pathogenicity Unit, Institut Pasteur, INRA, 75015, Paris, France. christophe.denfert@pasteur.fr.

Abstract

Elucidating population structure and levels of genetic diversity and recombination is necessary to understand the evolution and adaptation of species. Candida albicans is the second most frequent agent of human fungal infections worldwide, causing high-mortality rates. Here we present the genomic sequences of 182 C. albicans isolates collected worldwide, including commensal isolates, as well as ones responsible for superficial and invasive infections, constituting the largest dataset to date for this major fungal pathogen. Although, C. albicans shows a predominantly clonal population structure, we find evidence of gene flow between previously known and newly identified genetic clusters, supporting the occurrence of (para)sexuality in nature. A highly clonal lineage, which experimentally shows reduced fitness, has undergone pseudogenization in genes required for virulence and morphogenesis, which may explain its niche restriction. Candida albicans thus takes advantage of both clonality and gene flow to diversify.

PMID:
29884848
PMCID:
PMC5993739
DOI:
10.1038/s41467-018-04787-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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