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Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 8;8(1):8764. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27087-9.

Wireless control of cellular function by activation of a novel protein responsive to electromagnetic fields.

Krishnan V1,2,3,4, Park SA1,2, Shin SS1,2, Alon L1,2, Tressler CM2,5, Stokes W1, Banerjee J1,2, Sorrell ME1,2, Tian Y6, Fridman GY7, Celnik P8, Pevsner J9, Guggino WB6, Gilad AA10,11,12,13,14,15, Pelled G16,17,18,19,20.

Author information

1
F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA.
2
Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA.
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48823, USA.
4
The Institute of Quantitative Health Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48823, USA.
5
Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA.
6
Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA.
7
Department of Otolaryngology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA.
8
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21287, USA.
9
Department of Neurology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA.
10
F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA. gilad@msu.edu.
11
Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA. gilad@msu.edu.
12
Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA. gilad@msu.edu.
13
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48823, USA. gilad@msu.edu.
14
The Institute of Quantitative Health Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48823, USA. gilad@msu.edu.
15
Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48823, USA. gilad@msu.edu.
16
F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA. pelledga@msu.edu.
17
Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA. pelledga@msu.edu.
18
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48823, USA. pelledga@msu.edu.
19
The Institute of Quantitative Health Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48823, USA. pelledga@msu.edu.
20
Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48823, USA. pelledga@msu.edu.

Abstract

The Kryptopterus bicirrhis (glass catfish) is known to respond to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Here we tested its avoidance behavior in response to static and alternating magnetic fields stimulation. Using expression cloning we identified an electromagnetic perceptive gene (EPG) from the K. bicirrhis encoding a protein that responds to EMF. This EPG gene was cloned and expressed in mammalian cells, neuronal cultures and in rat's brain. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of EPG is confined to the mammalian cell membrane. Calcium imaging in mammalian cells and cultured neurons expressing EPG demonstrated that remote activation by EMF significantly increases intracellular calcium concentrations, indicative of cellular excitability. Moreover, wireless magnetic activation of EPG in rat motor cortex induced motor evoked responses of the contralateral forelimb in vivo. Here we report on the development of a new technology for remote, non-invasive modulation of cell function.

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