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Animals (Basel). 2018 May 23;8(6). pii: E79. doi: 10.3390/ani8060079.

Acceptability of Dry Dog Food Visual Characteristics by Consumer Segments Based on Overall Liking: a Case Study in Poland.

Author information

1
Center for Sensory Analysis and Consumer Behavior, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Drive, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA. dagomezb@ksu.edu.
2
Center for Sensory Analysis and Consumer Behavior, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Drive, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA. kadri@ksu.edu.
3
Center for Sensory Analysis and Consumer Behavior, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Drive, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA. delores@ksu.edu.
4
Department of Animal Breeding and Production, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Ciszewskiego 8, Warsaw 02-786, Poland. karolina_holda@sggw.pl.
5
Department of Animal Breeding and Production, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Ciszewskiego 8, Warsaw 02-786, Poland. robert_glogowski@sggw.pl.
6
Center for Sensory Analysis and Consumer Behavior, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Drive, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA. eciv@ksu.edu.

Abstract

Sensory analysis of pet foods has been emerging as an important field of study for the pet food industry over the last few decades. Few studies have been conducted on understanding the pet owners’ perception of pet foods. The objective of this study is to gain a deeper understanding on the perception of the visual characteristics of dry dog foods by dog owners in different consumer segments. A total of 120 consumers evaluated the appearance of 30 dry dog food samples with varying visual characteristics. The consumers rated the acceptance of the samples and associated each one with a list of positive and negative beliefs. Cluster Analysis, ANOVA and Correspondence Analysis were used to analyze the consumer responses. The acceptability of the appearance of dry dog foods was affected by the number of different kibbles present, color(s), shape(s), and size(s) of the kibbles in the product. Three consumer clusters were identified. Consumers rated highest single-kibble samples of medium sizes, traditional shapes, and brown colors. Participants disliked extra-small or extra-large kibble sizes, shapes with high-dimensional contrast, and kibbles of light brown color. These findings can help dry dog food manufacturers to meet consumers’ needs with increasing benefits to the pet food and commodity industries.

KEYWORDS:

affective tests; appearance; cluster analysis; consumer acceptance; consumer perception; dry dog food; kibble

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