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Caries Res. 2019;53(1):41-48. doi: 10.1159/000489132. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Fluoride Increase in Saliva and Dental Biofilm due to a Meal Prepared with Fluoridated Water or Salt: A Crossover Clinical Study.

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Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, Brazil.
School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba,


Knowledge about fluoride delivery to oral fluids from foods cooked with fluoridated water and salt is scarce, and no study has evaluated fluoride concentrations in saliva or biofilm during meal consumption. In this randomized double-blind crossover study, 12 volunteers ingested meals (rice, beans, meat, and legumes) prepared with nonfluoridated water and salt (control group), fluoridated water (0.70 mg F/L; water group), and fluoridated salt (183.7 mg F/kg; salt group). Whole saliva was collected before meal ingestion, during mastication, and up to 2 h after meal ingestion. Dental biofilm was collected before and immediately after meal ingestion. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were determined by an ion-specific electrode. The mean (±standard deviation; n = 4) fluoride concentrations in meals prepared for the control, water, and salt groups were 0.039 ± 0.01, 0.43 ± 0.04, and 1.71 ± 0.32 μg F/g, respectively. The three groups had significantly different fluoride concentrations in saliva collected during mastication (p < 0.0001) and after meal ingestion (p < 0.04; salt > water > control). The fluoride concentration in saliva returned to baseline 30 min after meal ingestion in the water group but remained high for up to 2 h in the salt group (p = 0.002). The fluoride concentration in biofilm fluid differed only between the salt and control groups (p = 0.008). The mastication of foods cooked with fluoridated water and salt increases fluoride concentrations in oral fluids and may contribute to the local effect of these community-based fluoride interventions on caries control.


Dental plaque; Fluoridation; Fluoride; Saliva

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