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J Toxicol Sci. 2018;43(6):359-367. doi: 10.2131/jts.43.359.

Early detection of prostate carcinogens by immunohistochemistry of HMGB2.

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Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences.
Pathology Division, Nagoya City East Medical Center.


Screening prostatic carcinogens is time-consuming due to the time needed to induce preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. To overcome this, we investigated alternative molecular markers for detection of prostatic carcinogens in a short period in rats. After treatment with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), expression of high-mobility group protein B2 (HMGB2) was up-regulated in rat ventral prostate. To evaluate the applicability of HMGB2 in the early detection of carcinogenicity of chemicals using animal models, we examined HMGB2 expression in prostate of rats. Six-week-old male F344 rats were gavaged for four weeks with a total of eight individual chemicals, divided into two categories based on prostate carcinogenicity. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and HMGB2 immunohistochemistry was performed. HMGB2 expression in least one prostate lobe was significantly increased by all four prostate carcinogens compared with the controls. In contrast, the four chemicals that were not carcinogenic in the prostate did not cause HMGB2 up-regulation. Additionally, high HMGB2 expression in neoplastic lesions in both rat and human was detected. Therefore HMGB2 expression may be a good screening tool for the identification of potential of prostate carcinogens.


Carcinogenesis; Carcinogens; HMGB2; Prostate; Rat

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