Send to

Choose Destination
J Virol. 2018 Jul 31;92(16). pii: e00093-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00093-18. Print 2018 Aug 15.

TIM-1 Mediates Dystroglycan-Independent Entry of Lassa Virus.

Author information

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA


Lassa virus (LASV) is an Old World arenavirus responsible for hundreds of thousands of infections in West Africa every year. LASV entry into a variety of cell types is mediated by interactions with glycosyltransferase LARGE-modified O-linked glycans present on the ubiquitous receptor α-dystroglycan (αDG). However, cells lacking αDG are permissive to LASV infection, suggesting that alternative receptors exist. Previous studies demonstrated that the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-binding receptors Axl and Tyro3 along with C-type lectin receptors mediate αDG-independent entry. Here, we demonstrate that another PtdSer receptor, TIM-1, mediates LASV glycoprotein (GP)-pseudotyped virion entry into αDG-knocked-out HEK 293T and wild-type (WT) Vero cells, which express αDG lacking appropriate glycosylation. To investigate the mechanism by which TIM-1 mediates enhancement of entry, we demonstrate that mutagenesis of the TIM-1 IgV domain PtdSer-binding pocket abrogated transduction. Furthermore, the human TIM-1 IgV domain-binding monoclonal antibody ARD5 blocked transduction of pseudovirions bearing LASV GP in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, as we showed previously for other viruses that use TIM-1 for entry, a chimeric TIM-1 protein that substitutes the proline-rich region (PRR) from murine leukemia virus envelope (Env) for the mucin-like domain served as a competent receptor. These studies provide evidence that, in the absence of a functional αDG, TIM-1 mediates the entry of LASV pseudoviral particles through interactions of virions with the IgV PtdSer-binding pocket of TIM-1.IMPORTANCE PtdSer receptors, such as TIM-1, are emerging as critical entry factors for many enveloped viruses. Most recently, hepatitis C virus and Zika virus have been added to a growing list. PtdSer receptors engage with enveloped viruses through the binding of PtdSer embedded in the viral envelope, defining them as GP-independent receptors. This GP-independent entry mechanism should effectively mediate the entry of all enveloped viruses, yet LASV GP-pseudotyped viruses were previously found to be unresponsive to PtdSer receptor enhancement in HEK 293T cells. Here, we demonstrate that LASV pseudovirions can utilize the PtdSer receptor TIM-1 but only in the absence of appropriately glycosylated α-dystroglycan (αDG), the high-affinity cell surface receptor for LASV. Our studies shed light on LASV receptor utilization and explain why previous studies performed with α-DG-expressing cells did not find that LASV pseudovirions utilize PtdSer receptors for virus uptake.


Lassa virus; TIM-1; arenavirus; phosphatidylserine; phosphatidylserine receptor; receptor; viral lipids; virus entry

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center