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Perit Dial Int. 2018 Jul-Aug;38(4):271-277. doi: 10.3747/pdi.2017.00180. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Planning Vascular Access in Peritoneal Dialysis-Defining High-Risk Patients.

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Nephrology Department, Centro Hospitalar de São João, Porto, Portugal
Nephrology Department, Centro Hospitalar de São João, Porto, Portugal.
Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
Nephrology and Infectious Diseases Research and Development Group, INEB-(I3S), Porto, Portugal.



Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective renal replacement technique. However, every year a considerable number of patients are transferred to hemodialysis (HD). Our aim was to identify those at risk, in order to place an arteriovenous fistula (AVF).


Case-control study enrolling all prevalent patients in 2014 and 2015 in our clinic. Groups: 72 case patients who were transferred definitively to HD, 111 control patients (remaining on PD, transplanted, recovered renal function, or deceased).


A total of 183 patients were eligible, with a mean age of 55.2 ± 14.8 years, 56.3% male, 31.1% diabetic, and 49.7% on continuous ambulatory PD. The mean follow-up time was 42.1 ± 25.6 months. Eighty-five patients had an AVF. The groups differed in diabetic nephropathy etiology, and in some PD-related characteristics (Kt/V, creatinine clearance, residual renal function, mean ultrafiltration, natriuretic peptide, peritonitis, hospitalizations, and hypervolemia). In multivariate analysis, Kt/V < 1.7 (odds ratio [OR] 3.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 - 7.50], albumin < 35 g/L (OR 4.03, 95% CI: 1.26 - 12.92), number of hospitalizations 1 to 3 (OR 2.74, 95% CI: 1.15 - 6.53) and 4 or more (OR 10.48, 95% CI: 3.62 - 30.36), and 2 or more peritonitis episodes (OR 2.50, 95% CI: 1.03 - 6.07) were predictors of PD transfer to HD. In those patients who were transferred to HD, 34 initiated HD by AVF, 2 needed a catheter due to a non-functioning AVF, and 36 did not have an AVF needing catheter placement.


Low Kt/V, low albumin, higher number of hospitalizations, and peritonitis were factors associated with PD transfer to HD, probably indicative of a high-risk PD population where arteriovenous access should be weighed.


Arteriovenous fistula; hemodialysis

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