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Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jun 5;19(6). pii: E1676. doi: 10.3390/ijms19061676.

Validation of LDLr Activity as a Tool to Improve Genetic Diagnosis of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Retrospective on Functional Characterization of LDLr Variants.

Author information

1
Instituto Biofisika (UPV/EHU, CSIC) and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. asierbenitovicente@gmail.com.
2
Instituto Biofisika (UPV/EHU, CSIC) and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. kepa1985@gmail.com.
3
Instituto Biofisika (UPV/EHU, CSIC) and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. shifajebari@gmail.com.
4
Instituto Biofisika (UPV/EHU, CSIC) and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. u.galiciag@gmail.com.
5
Instituto Biofisika (UPV/EHU, CSIC) and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. elenaamaya.ostolaza@ehu.eus.
6
Instituto Biofisika (UPV/EHU, CSIC) and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. cesar.martin@ehu.eus.

Abstract

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by high blood-cholesterol levels mostly caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr). With a prevalence as high as 1/200 in some populations, genetic screening for pathogenic LDLr mutations is a cost-effective approach in families classified as 'definite' or 'probable' FH and can help to early diagnosis. However, with over 2000 LDLr variants identified, distinguishing pathogenic mutations from benign mutations is a long-standing challenge in the field. In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO) highlighted the importance of improving the diagnosis and prognosis of FH patients thus, identifying LDLr pathogenic variants is a longstanding challenge to provide an accurate genetic diagnosis and personalized treatments. In recent years, accessible methodologies have been developed to assess LDLr activity in vitro, providing experimental reproducibility between laboratories all over the world that ensures rigorous analysis of all functional studies. In this review we present a broad spectrum of functionally characterized missense LDLr variants identified in patients with FH, which is mandatory for a definite diagnosis of FH.

KEYWORDS:

Low Density Lipoprotein receptor (LDLr); familial hypercholesterolemia; functional validation; in vitro; is silico; variants

PMID:
29874871
PMCID:
PMC6032215
DOI:
10.3390/ijms19061676
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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