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Sci Total Environ. 2018 Sep 1;635:1530-1546. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.079. Epub 2018 May 1.

Endocrine-disrupting metabolites of alkylphenol ethoxylates - A critical review of analytical methods, environmental occurrences, toxicity, and regulation.

Author information

1
University of Bonn, Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Food Chemistry, Endenicher Allee 11-13, D-53115 Bonn, Germany.
2
University of Bonn, Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Food Chemistry, Endenicher Allee 11-13, D-53115 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address: k.guenther@uni-bonn.de.

Abstract

Despite the fact that metabolites of alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO) are classified as hazardous substances, they continue to be released into the environment from a variety of sources and are not usually monitored. Their wide use has led to an increase in the possible exposure pathways for humans, which is cause for alarm. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge about the behaviour of these metabolites with respect to the environment and toxicity, and their biological effects on human health. The aim of this work is to give an overview of the APEO metabolites and their analysis, occurrences and toxicity in various environmental and human samples. APEO metabolites have adverse effects on humans, wildlife, and the environment through their release into the environment. Currently, there are some reviews available on the behaviour of alkylphenols in soil, sediments, groundwater, surface water and food. However, none of these articles consider their toxicity in humans and especially their effect on the nervous and immune system. This work summarises the environmental occurrences of metabolites of APEOs in matrices, e.g. water, food and biological matrices, their effect on the immune and nervous systems, and isomer-specific issues. With that emphasis we are able to cover most common occurrences of human exposure, whether direct or indirect.

KEYWORDS:

Analysis; Environmental occurrences; Nonylphenol; Octylphenol; Regulation; Toxicity

PMID:
29874777
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.079
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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