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Cancer. 1985 Jun 15;55(12):2826-9.

Hepatolithiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Possible etiologic significance.


Three cases of primary bile duct carcinomas (cholangiocarcinomas) were found among 61 cases of hepatolithiasis. Cholangiocarcinoma arose from the extrahepatic bile duct in one and from the dilated intrahepatic bile duct in two patients. Hyperplasia of the columnar cells was often present. These hyperplastic epithelial cells often show papillomatous or adenomatous pattern, which are frequently associated with the presence of stones and the contaminated bile, and may show malignant changes leading to the development of cholangiocarcinoma.

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