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Front Immunol. 2018 May 11;9:923. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00923. eCollection 2018.

Exposure of Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Short- and Long-Chain Fructo-Oligosaccharides and CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Enhances Peanut-Specific T Helper 1 Polarization.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology/Allergology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
2
Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
3
Division of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
4
Immunology Platform, Nutricia Research, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Abstract

Background:

Non-digestible oligosaccharides promote colonization of beneficial gut bacteria and have direct immunomodulatory effects. Apical exposure of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) in a transwell co-culture model enhanced the CpG-induced (TLR-9 ligand) T helper 1 (Th1) phenotype and regulatory IL-10 response of underlying peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy donors. scGOS is derived from lactose and may pose risks in severe cow's milk allergic patients, and scFOS/lcFOS may be an alternative. The goal of this study was to determine the immunomodulatory effects of scGOS/lcFOS and scFOS/lcFOS in an allergen-specific transwell co-culture model using PBMCs from peanut-allergic patients.

Methods:

IECs cultured on transwell filters were apically exposed to CpG, either or not in combination with oligosaccharides. These IECs were co-cultured with basolateral PBMCs of peanut-allergic patients that were either activated with aCD3/28 or peanut extract. Basolateral cytokine production and T-cell polarization were measured and the contribution of galectin-9 and the dectin-1 receptor in immune modulation were assessed.

Results:

IECs exposed to CpG increased IFN-γ, IL-10, and galectin-9 production by aCD3/28-stimulated PBMCs, whereas IL-13 decreased. Both scGOS/lcFOS and scFOS/lcFOS further enhanced IFN-γ and IL-10, while suppressing IL-13 and TNF-α. In the peanut-specific model, only scFOS/lcFOS further increased IFN-γ and IL-10 production, coinciding with enhanced Th1-frequency. Expression of CRTH2 reduced after CpG exposure, and was further reduced by scFOS/lcFOS. Galectin-9 inhibitor TIM-3-Fc abrogated the additional effect of scFOS/lcFOS on peanut-specific IFN-γ production, while neutralization of the dectin-1 receptor was not effective.

Conclusion:

Epithelial exposure to scFOS/lcFOS enhanced the CpG-induced Th1 and regulatory IL-10 response in a peanut-specific co-culture model. These effects suggest scFOS/lcFOS as candidate for dietary adjunct in allergen-specific immunotherapy.

KEYWORDS:

T cell polarization; allergen-specific; co-culture; epithelial cells; immunomodulation; non-digestible oligosaccharides

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