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Front Microbiol. 2018 May 17;9:1013. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01013. eCollection 2018.

Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila Reveal Evolutionary Insights Into Sulfamethoxazole Resistance.

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Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan.
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA, United States.
Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
The Department of Nursing, Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, College of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.


Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila is an aerobic, glucose non-fermentative, Gram-negative bacterium that been isolated from various environmental sources, particularly aquatic ecosystems. Although resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents has been reported in S. acidaminiphila, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, for the first time, we report the complete genome and antimicrobial resistome analysis of a clinical isolate S. acidaminiphila SUNEO which is resistant to sulfamethoxazole. Comparative analysis among closely related strains identified common and strain-specific genes. In particular, comparison with a sulfamethoxazole-sensitive strain identified a mutation within the sulfonamide-binding site of folP in SUNEO, which may reduce the binding affinity of sulfamethoxazole. Selection pressure analysis indicated folP in SUNEO is under purifying selection, which may be owing to long-term administration of sulfonamide against Stenotrophomonas.


Stenotrophomonas; Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila; comparative genomics; dihydropteroate synthase; genome sequencing; sulfamethoxazole resistance

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