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Front Microbiol. 2018 May 9;9:907. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00907. eCollection 2018.

Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification Coupled With Nanoparticles-Based Lateral Flow Biosensor for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Identification of Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus.

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State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
Department of Laboratory, Zunyi Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Guizhou, China.
Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking University Shougang Hospital, Beijing, China.


Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is one of the most important human pathogens, which is responsible for bacteremia, soft-tissue infections, and food poisoning. Hence, multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) is employed to detect all S. aureus strains, and differentiates MRSA from methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. Multiplex MCDA (m-MCDA), which targets the nuc gene (S. aureus-specific gene) and mecA gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein-2'), could detect S. aureus strains and identify MRSA within 85 min. Detection of the m-MCDA products is achieved using disposable lateral flow biosensors. A total of 58 strains, including various species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, are used for evaluating and optimizing m-MCDA assays. The optimal amplification condition is found to be 63°C for 40 min, with detection limits at 100 fg DNA/reaction for nuc and mecA genes in the pure cultures, and 10 CFU/tube for nuc and mecA genes in the blood samples. The analytical specificity of m-MCDA assay is of 100%, and no cross-reactions to non-S. aureus strains are produced according to the specificity testing. Particularly, two additional components, including AUDG enzyme and dUTP, are added into the m-MCDA amplification mixtures, which are used for eliminating the unwanted results arising from carryover contamination. Thus, the m-MCDA technique appears to be a simple, rapid, sensitive, and reliable assay to detect all S. aureus strains, and identify MRSA infection for appropriate antibiotic therapy.


LFB; MCDA; MRSA; MSSA; S. aureus

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