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Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2018 Jun 4;11(2). pii: E56. doi: 10.3390/ph11020056.

Inflammation and Neuro-Immune Dysregulations in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

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Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania, 80138 Naples, Italy.
Italian Group for Study Autism-GISA, 25018 Brescia, Italy.
Centre for Autism-La Forza del Silenzio, 81036 Caserta, Italy.
Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.
Italian Group for Study Autism-GISA, 25018 Brescia, Italy.
Biomedical Centre for Autism Research and Treatment, 70124 Bari, Italy.


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted-repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Strong inflammation states are associated with ASD. This inflammatory condition is often linked to immune system dysfunction. Several cell types are enrolled to trigger and sustain these processes. Neuro-inflammation and neuro-immune abnormalities have now been established in ASD as key factors in its development and maintenance. In this review, we will explore inflammatory conditions, dysfunctions in neuro-immune cross-talk, and immune system treatments in ASD management.


autism; inflammation; macrophages; monocytes; neuro-immune system

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