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Parasit Vectors. 2018 Jun 4;11(1):332. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-2899-0.

Pyrethroid resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in Southeast Asia: present situation and prospects for management.

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Tropical Infectious Diseases Research & Education Centre (TIDREC), University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Tropical Infectious Diseases Research & Education Centre (TIDREC), University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Human arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever remain global public health threats to date. Of these diseases, dengue fever is particularly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Relentless vector control efforts are performed to curtail disease transmissions through which pyrethroid insecticides are broadly used as the first line of defense to control Ae. aegypti, especially in the course of disease outbreaks. Here, we compile the largest contemporary database for susceptibility profiles and underlying mechanisms involved in Ae. aegypti resistant to pyrethroids in Southeast Asia. The extensive use of pyrethroids inevitably elicit different levels of resistance to numerous populations despite the presence of geographical isolation. The most common mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance that have been identified in Ae. aegypti includes mutations in the voltage sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc gene) and metabolic-mediated insecticide resistance. Aedes aegypti develops resistance to pyrethroids by acquisition of one or several amino acid substitution(s) in this Vssc gene. Enzymes involved in metabolic-mediated detoxification (i.e. monooxygenases, glutathione-S-transferases and esterases) have been reported to be related to pyrethroid resistance but many specific contributory enzymes are not completely studied. An inadequate amount of data from some countries indicates an urgent need for further study to fill the knowledge gaps. Perspectives and future research needs are also discussed.


Insecticide resistance; Knockdown resistance; Metabolic-mediated resistance; Pyrethroids; kdr

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