Send to

Choose Destination
J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Jun 27;66(25):6402-6413. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b01413. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Atrazine Triggers Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Quail ( Coturnix C. coturnix) Cerebrum via Activating Xenobiotic-Sensing Nuclear Receptors and Modulating Cytochrome P450 Systems.

Author information

Laboratory Animal Centre , Qiqihar Medical University , Qiqihar 161006 , P.R. China.


The residues from the widely used broad-spectrum environmental herbicide, atrazine (ATR), result in the exposure of nontarget organisms and persist as a global major public health hazard. ATR is neurotoxic and may cause adverse health effects in mammals, birds, and fishes. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of ATR induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. To assess the molecular mechanisms of ATR-induced cerebral toxicity through potential oxidative damage, quail were treated with ATR by oral gavage administration at doses of 0, 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight daily for 45 days. Markedly, increases in the amount of swelling of neuronal cells, the percentage of mean damaged mitochondria, mitochondrial malformation, and mitochondrial vacuolar degeneration as well as decreases in the mitochondrial cristae and mitochondrial volume density were observed by light and electron microscopy in the cerebrum of quail. ATR induced toxicities in the expression of mitochondrial function-related genes and promoted oxidative damage, as indicated by effects on oxidative stress indices. These results indicated that ATR exposure can cause neurological disorders and cerebral injury. ATR may initiate apoptosis by activating Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase3 protein expression but failed to induce autophagy (LC3B has not cleaved to LC3BI/II). Furthermore, ATR induced CYP-related enzymes metabolism disorders by activating the nuclear xenobiotic receptors response (NXRs including AHR, CAR, and PXR) and increased expression of several CYP isoforms (including CYP1B1 and CYP2C18) and thereby producing mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we observed ATR exposure resulted in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction by activating the NXR response and interfering the CYP450s homeostasis in quail cerebrum that supported the molecular mechanism of ATR induced cerebrum toxicity. In conclusion, these results provided new evidence on molecular mechanism of ATR induced neurotoxicity.


atrazine; cytochrome P450 systems; mitochondrial dysfunction; nuclear xenobiotic receptors response; quail cerebrum

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for American Chemical Society
Loading ...
Support Center