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Kidney Int. 2018 Aug;94(2):315-325. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2018.02.026. Epub 2018 May 31.

Interleukin-6 contributes to the increase in fibroblast growth factor 23 expression in acute and chronic kidney disease.

Author information

1
Minerva Center for Calcium and Bone Metabolism, Nephrology Services, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
2
Goldyn Savad Institute of Gene Therapy, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
3
Minerva Center for Calcium and Bone Metabolism, Nephrology Services, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address: tally@huji.ac.il.

Abstract

The high serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Mice with folic acid-induced AKI had an increase in bone FGF23 mRNA expression together with an increase in serum FGF23 and several circulating cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6). Dexamethasone partially prevented the increase in IL-6 and FGF23 in the AKI mice. IL-6 knock-out mice fed an adenine diet to induce CKD failed to increase bone FGF23 mRNA and had a muted increase in serum FGF23 levels, compared with the increases in wild-type mice with CKD. Therefore, IL-6 contributes to the increase in FGF23 observed in CKD. Hydrodynamic tail injection of IL-6/soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) fusion protein hyper IL-6 (HIL-6) plasmid increased serum FGF23 levels. Circulating sIL-6R levels were increased in both CKD and AKI mice, suggesting that IL-6 increases FGF23 through sIL-6R-mediated trans-signaling. Renal IL-6 mRNA expression was increased in mice with either AKI or CKD, suggesting the kidney is the source for the increased serum IL-6 levels in the uremic state. HIL-6 also increased FGF23 mRNA in calvaria organ cultures and osteoblast-like UMR106 cells in culture, demonstrating a direct effect of IL-6 on FGF23 expression. HIL-6 increased FGF23 promoter activity through STAT3 phosphorylation and its evolutionarily conserved element in the FGF23 promoter. Thus, IL-6 increases FGF23 transcription and contributes to the high levels of serum FGF23 in both acute and chronic kidney disease.

KEYWORDS:

STAT3; chronic inflammation; cytokines; mineral metabolism; osteoblasts

PMID:
29861060
DOI:
10.1016/j.kint.2018.02.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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