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Chemosphere. 2018 Oct;208:40-49. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.094. Epub 2018 May 17.

Daily intake of phthalates, MEHP, and DINCH by ingestion and inhalation.

Author information

1
Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7050, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Svante Arrheniusväg 12, 10691, Stockholm, Sweden.
2
Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden; Swetox, Karolinska Institute, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Forskargatan 20, 151 36, Södertälje, Sweden.
3
Swetox, Karolinska Institute, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Forskargatan 20, 151 36, Södertälje, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), Karolinska Institute, Box 287, SE-17177, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Swetox, Karolinska Institute, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Forskargatan 20, 151 36, Södertälje, Sweden.
5
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Institution of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, SE-221 85, Lund, Sweden.
6
Swetox, Karolinska Institute, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Forskargatan 20, 151 36, Södertälje, Sweden; Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Institution of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, SE-221 85, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address: annette.krais@med.lu.se.

Abstract

Phthalate esters, suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals, are used in a wide range of applications. Because phthalate esters are not covalently bound, they can easily leach into the indoor environment and associate to dust particles. Thus, exposure may occur through inhalation, ingestion, or contact with the skin. However, it is unclear to what degree indoor dust contributes to the daily intake of phthalate esters. This study investigates household dust as an exposure pathway for seven phthalate esters, the monoester MEHP, and the plasticizer DINCH. Household dust collected from children's sleeping rooms and from living rooms were analysed using gas and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. To compare two exposure pathways, different dust particle sizes were generated: a respirable fraction (<5 μm) and an ingested particle fraction in the anticipated size range of skin adherence (<75 μm). Modelling of dust inhalation and ingestion showed that the daily intake of dust-bound phthalate esters was likely to be 2 times (inhalation) to 12 times (ingestion) higher for 21-month-old children than for adults. These children's daily uptake of phthalate esters was 40-140 times higher through ingestion than inhalation. Furthermore, dust may be an exposure pathway for phthalate esters as well as for MEHP. Therefore, phthalate monoesters could be environmental contaminants of their own and need to be considered in health risk assessments.

KEYWORDS:

Household dust; Indoor environment; Indoor pollution; Phthalate esters; Phthalate monoesters; Pollution particles

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