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Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Jul;29(7):455-467. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2018.04.010. Epub 2018 May 30.

How Non-nutritive Sweeteners Influence Hormones and Health.

Author information

1
Section on Pediatric Diabetes and Metabolism, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 10, Room 8C432A, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address: kristina.rother@nih.gov.
2
Section on Pediatric Diabetes and Metabolism, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 10, Room 8C432A, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
3
Section on Pediatric Diabetes and Metabolism, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 10, Room 8C432A, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA; Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, The George Washington University, 950 New Hampshire Avenue NW, 2nd floor, Washington DC 20052, USA; Sumner M. Redstone Global Center for Prevention and Wellness, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, 950 New Hampshire Avenue NW, 3rd floor, Washington DC 20052, USA.

Abstract

Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) elicit a multitude of endocrine effects in vitro, in animal models, and in humans. The best-characterized consequences of NNS exposure are metabolic changes, which may be mediated by activation of sweet taste receptors in oral and extraoral tissues (e.g., intestine, pancreatic β cells, and brain), and alterations of the gut microbiome. These mechanisms are likely synergistic and may differ across species and chemically distinct NNSs. However, the extent to which these hormonal effects are clinically relevant in the context of human consumption is unclear. Further investigation following prolonged exposure is required to better understand the role of NNSs in human health, with careful consideration of genetic, dietary, anthropometric, and other interindividual differences.

KEYWORDS:

artificial sweeteners; diet soda; endocrine system; hormones; metabolism; microbiome

PMID:
29859661
DOI:
10.1016/j.tem.2018.04.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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