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Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1780:41-73. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7825-0_4.

Cellular Models: HD Patient-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.
2
Sue and Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.
3
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.
4
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Board of Governor's Regenerative Medicine Institute and Biomedical Sciences, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Virginia.Mattis@cshs.org.

Abstract

Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded polyglutamine (polyQ)-encoding repeats in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Traditionally, HD cellular models consisted of either patient cells not affected by disease or rodent neurons expressing expanded polyQ repeats in HTT. As these models can be limited in their disease manifestation or proper genetic context, respectively, human HD pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are currently under investigation as a way to model disease in patient-derived neurons and other neural cell types. This chapter reviews embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models of disease, including published differentiation paradigms for neurons and their associated phenotypes, as well as current challenges to the field such as validation of the PSCs and PSC-derived cells. Highlighted are potential future technical advances to HD PSC modeling, including transdifferentiation, complex in vitro multiorgan/system reconstruction, and personalized medicine. Using a human HD patient model of the central nervous system, hopefully one day researchers can tease out the consequences of mutant HTT (mHTT) expression on specific cell types within the brain in order to identify and test novel therapies for disease.

KEYWORDS:

Differentiation; Embryonic stem cell (ESC); Huntingtin (HTT); Huntington’s disease (HD); Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC); Modeling; Striatum

PMID:
29856014
DOI:
10.1007/978-1-4939-7825-0_4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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