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Science. 2018 Jun 1;360(6392):1028-1032. doi: 10.1126/science.aar2625.

Ancient genomes from Iceland reveal the making of a human population.

Author information

1
deCODE Genetics/AMGEN, Inc., Reykjavik Iceland. sunna@decode.is kstefan@deocde.is agnar@decode.is.
2
Department of Anthropology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
3
Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
4
deCODE Genetics/AMGEN, Inc., Reykjavik Iceland.
5
Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
6
Institute for Cancer Genetics and Informatics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
7
Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
8
Department of Human Medicine, Universität Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.
9
Research Group Inherited Cancer, Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
10
Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Neuroimmunology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
11
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
12
Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Copenhagen Mental Health Services, Copenhagen, Denmark.
13
Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University hospital, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark.
14
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
15
The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Copenhagen, Denmark.
16
Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, Ireland.
17
Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (UPF-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.
18
National Museum of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
19
Department of Archaeology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
20
Norwegian University of Science and Techonology, University Museum, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
21
Faculity of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Abstract

Opportunities to directly study the founding of a human population and its subsequent evolutionary history are rare. Using genome sequence data from 27 ancient Icelanders, we demonstrate that they are a combination of Norse, Gaelic, and admixed individuals. We further show that these ancient Icelanders are markedly more similar to their source populations in Scandinavia and the British-Irish Isles than to contemporary Icelanders, who have been shaped by 1100 years of extensive genetic drift. Finally, we report evidence of unequal contributions from the ancient founders to the contemporary Icelandic gene pool. These results provide detailed insights into the making of a human population that has proven extraordinarily useful for the discovery of genotype-phenotype associations.

PMID:
29853688
DOI:
10.1126/science.aar2625
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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