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Nutrition. 2018 Oct;54:129-143. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.02.017. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Effects of nut consumption on selected inflammatory markers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Author information

1
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, China.
2
School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
3
Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center and Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
4
School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: Xuefensu@cuhk.edu.hk.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of nut consumption on inflammatory markers. However, the results have been inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis of RCTs was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of nut consumption on selected inflammatory markers.

METHODS:

PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library database, and Google Scholar were searched for published RCTs that reported the effects of nuts on inflammatory markers as primary or secondary outcomes in an adult population (aged ≥18 y). Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis.

RESULTS:

Twenty-three RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Overall, nut consumption significantly reduced the levels of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 (WMD, -0.17; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.03; P = 0.01), but had no significant effect on other inflammatory markers. In the subgroup analyses by nut types, mixed nuts had a significant effect on ICAM-1 reduction. The significant effect of nuts on ICAM-1 reduction was only observed in parallel, but not crossover RCTs. Additionally, nut consumption significantly reduced ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels in long-term (≥12 wk), but not short-term (<12 wk) RCTs. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed in the studies included.

CONCLUSIONS:

Nut consumption significantly reduced ICAM-1 levels, but had no effect on other inflammatory markers. More studies are needed to assess the effects of nuts on inflammation.

KEYWORDS:

Inflammatory markers; Intercellular adhesion molecule; Meta-analysis; Nut consumption; Randomized controlled trials

PMID:
29852452
DOI:
10.1016/j.nut.2018.02.017

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