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Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2018 Jul;35(7):1238-1246. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1482011. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Determination and identification of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in confectionery foods, marketed in South Korea, using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy.

Author information

1
a Food & Drug Division , Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment , Gyeonggi-do , Korea.
2
b Atmospheric Research Division , Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment , Gyeonggi-do , Korea.

Abstract

Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a common and widespread food additive in many processed foods, personal care products, and other industrial categories as it boosts the brightness and whiteness of colours. Although it is generally recognised as safe for humans, there is a growing interest in the health risks associated with its oral intake. This study quantified and identified TiO2 nanoparticles present in confectionery foods, which are children's favourite foods, with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A reliable digestion method using hot sulphuric acid and a digestion catalyst (K2SO4:CuSO4 = 9:1) was suggested for titanium analysis. Validations of the experimental method were quite acceptable in terms of linearity, recoveries, detection limits, and quantification limits. Of all the 88 analysed foods, TiO2 was detected in 19 products, all except three declared TiO2 in their labelling. The mean TiO2 content of candies, chewing gums, and chocolates were 0.36 mg g-1, 0.04 mg g-1, and 0.81 mg g-1, respectively. Whitish particles isolated from the confectionery foods were confirmed as TiO2 nanoparticles via TEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), in which nanosized particles (<100 nm) were identified.

KEYWORDS:

ICP-OES; TEM; Titanium dioxide; confectionery foods; nanoparticles

PMID:
29847212
DOI:
10.1080/19440049.2018.1482011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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