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Small. 2018 Jun;14(25):e1800635. doi: 10.1002/smll.201800635. Epub 2018 May 27.

Graphene Caging Silicon Particles for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

Nie P1,2,3, Le Z2, Chen G2, Liu D2,4, Liu X2, Wu HB2,5, Xu P2, Li X2, Liu F2, Chang L3, Zhang X1, Lu Y2.

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College of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016, China.
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
Key Laboratory of Preparation and Applications of Environmental Friendly Material of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Jilin Normal University, Changchun, 130103, China.
Dynavolt Renewable Energy Technology Co., Ltd, Shenzhen, 518000, China.
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.


Silicon holds great promise as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries with higher energy density; its implication, however, is limited by rapid capacity fading. A catalytic growth of graphene cages on composite particles of magnesium oxide and silicon, which are made by magnesiothermic reduction reaction of silica particles, is reported herein. Catalyzed by the magnesium oxide, graphene cages can be conformally grown onto the composite particles, leading to the formation of hollow graphene-encapsulated Si particles. Such materials exhibit excellent lithium storage properties in terms of high specific capacity, remarkable rate capability (890 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1 ), and good cycling retention over 200 cycles with consistently high coulombic efficiency at a current density of 1 A g-1 . A full battery test using LiCoO2 as the cathode demonstrates a high energy density of 329 Wh kg-1 .


chemical vapor deposition; graphene; lithium-ion batteries; magnesiothermic reduction; silicon


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