Send to

Choose Destination
Small. 2018 Jun;14(26):e1800181. doi: 10.1002/smll.201800181. Epub 2018 May 28.

A Two-Stage Annealing Strategy for Crystallization Control of CH3 NH3 PbI3 Films toward Highly Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells.

Author information

Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023, China.
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19(A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, 100049, China.
Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 0200, Australia.


The solvent-engineering method is widely used to fabricate top-performing perovskite solar cells, which, however, usually exhibit inferior reproducibility. Herein, a two-stage annealing (TSA) strategy is demonstrated for processing of perovskite films, namely, annealing the intermediate phase at 60 °C for the first stage then at 100 °C for the second stage. Compared to conventional direct annealing temperature (DHA) at 100 °C, using this strategy, MAPbI3 films become more controllable, leading to superior film uniformity and device reproducibility with the champion device efficiency reaching 19.8%. More specifically, the coefficient of variation of efficiency for 49 cells is reduced to 5.9%, compared to 9.8% for that using DHA. The TSA process is carefully studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. It is found that in comparison with DHA the formation of hydrogen bonding and crystallization of perovskite are much slower and can be better controlled when using TSA. The improvements in film uniformity and device reproducibility are attributed to: 1) controllable MAPbI3 crystal growth stemming from the progressive formation of hydrogen bonding between methylammonium and halide; 2) suppression of intermediate phase film dewetting, which is believed to be due to its decreased mobility at the initial low-temperature annealing stage.


crystallization control; perovskite solar cells; reproducibility; two-stage annealing


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center