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CNS Neurosci Ther. 2019 Jan;25(1):69-77. doi: 10.1111/cns.12981. Epub 2018 May 27.

MicroRNA-219 decreases hippocampal long-term potentiation inhibition and hippocampal neuronal cell apoptosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice by suppressing the NMDAR signaling pathway.

Author information

1
Department of Cadre Health Care, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region People's Hospital, Urumchi, China.
2
Department of Anesthesiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumchi, China.
3
Department of Nephrology, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region People's Hospital, Urumchi, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex polygenic disease that causes hyperglycemia and accounts for 90%-95% of all diabetes mellitus cases. Hence, this study aimed to examine the effects of microRNA-219 (miR-219) on inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) and apoptosis of hippocampal neuronal cells in T2DM mice through the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling pathway regulation.

METHODS:

The T2DM mouse models were established, after which LTP in vivo was recorded by means of electrical biology, and the fasting blood glucose of mice was measured. Next, the density of pyramidal neurons in each group was calculated. Additionally, the expression levels of miR-219, the NMDAR signaling pathway [NMDAR1 (NR) 1, NR2A, and NR2B), downstream target proteins [calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMK-II) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)], and apoptosis-related factors [Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax), c-caspase-9 and c-caspase-3] in the hippocampal tissues were determined. Finally, immunohistochemistry was applied to detect and measure the positive expression of Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 proteins.

RESULTS:

The results showed that upregulation of miR-219 increases LTP and density of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal tissues of mice, while it decreases blood glucose of db/db mice. In addition, miR-219 upregulation also leads to decreased mRNA levels of NR1, NR2A, NR2B, CaMK-II, and CREB and protein levels of NR1, NR2A, NR2B, CaMK-II, CREB, p-CREB, Bax, c-caspase-9, and c-caspase-3. Furthermore, upregulation of miR-219 inhibits positive expression of Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 proteins, leading to the suppression of hippocampal neuronal cell apoptosis.

CONCLUSION:

The findings from this study indicated that the upregulation of miR-219 decreases LTP inhibition and hippocampal neuronal cell apoptosis in T2DM mice by downregulating the NMDAR signaling pathway, therefore suggesting that MiR-219 might be a future therapeutic strategy for T2DM.

KEYWORDS:

MicroRNA-219; NMDAR signaling pathway; apoptosis; hippocampal neuronal cells; long-term potentiation; type 2 diabetes mellitus

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