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Reprod Toxicol. 1987-1988;1(3):173-8.

Nicotine and cotinine effects on development of two-cell mouse embryos in vitro.

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Department of Zoology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287-1501.


The independent and interactive effects of nicotine and cotinine on the development of cultured two-cell embryos were investigated. Cultures were maintained for 120 h and developmental stages of embryos were scored after 72 h and at the termination of culture. Concentrations of nicotine at or below 0.5 mM, and concentrations of cotinine at or below 0.008 mM, did not adversely affect development. In addition, neither nicotine nor cotinine produced synergistic effects at higher concentrations at which both independently impaired development. These data show, therefore, that nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, significantly interfere with preimplantation development of mouse embryos only at concentrations far in excess of those anticipated to be present in the blood of an "average" smoker. Thus, we conclude that the well documented adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy are unlikely to be attributable to a direct effect of nicotine or cotinine on the preimplantation embryo.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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