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Food Res Int. 2018 Jul;109:596-605. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.05.008. Epub 2018 May 5.

Comparison of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in rice wine fermented by Koji inoculated with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Aspergillus oryzae.

Author information

1
Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Republic of Korea.
2
School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Republic of Korea.
3
School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: sja815@ssu.ac.kr.
4
Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: yskim10@ewha.ac.kr.

Abstract

This study investigated volatile and nonvolatile metabolite profiles of makgeolli (a traditional rice wine in Korea) fermented by koji inoculated with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and/or Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme activities in koji were also examined to determine their effects on the formation of metabolites. The contents of all 18 amino acids detected were the highest in makgeolli fermented by S. fibuligera CN2601-09, and increased after combining with A. oryzae CN1102-08, unlike the contents of most fatty acids. On the other hand, major volatile metabolites were fusel alcohols, acetate esters, and ethyl esters. The contents of most fusel alcohols and acetate esters were the highest in makgeolli fermented by S. fibuligera CN2601-09, for which the protease activity was the highest, leading to the largest amounts of amino acods. The makgeolli samples fermented only by koji inoculated with S. fibuligera could be discriminated on PCA plots from the makgeolli samples fermented in combination with A. oryzae. In the case of nonvolatile metabolites, all amino acids and some metabolites such as xylose, 2-methylbenzoic acid, and oxalic acid contributed mainly to the characteristics of makgeolli fermented by koji inoculated with S. fibuligera and A. oryzae. These results showed that the formations of volatile and nonvolatile metabolites in makgeolli can be significantly affected by microbial strains with different enzyme activities in koji. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the effects of S. fibuligera strains on the formation of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in rice wine, facilitating their use in brewing rice wine.

KEYWORDS:

Aspergillus oryzae; Koji; Metabolites; Rice wine; Saccharomycopsis fibuligera

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